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Special Vocabulary

The following table is a list of the Greek words and usages that are listed in the vocabulary pages from the Books Epictetus: A Stoic and Socratic Guide to Life by A. A. Long, Epictetus' Handbook and the Tablet of Cebes: Guides to Stoic Living by Keith Seddon (This is a must have book for anyone who wants to read and understand the Enchiridion) , and Thurot, Charles 1903. Epictete, Manuel (available on the Bibliography page). The glosses are taken from the above books, along with additional ones that have been added from the table of words for each Enchiridion reading (which are taken from the translations of Boter, Oldfather, Seddon, Brittain and Brennan and White.) An asteric before any definition means that the current definition was taken directly from LSJ (the appropriate glosses) has not been vetted against the text of the Enchiridion as of yet. In addition, words selected by the various translators will be expanded as time progresses.

The table has the following columns: 1) a numeric, ID 2)The Greek key word or phrase, 3) The lemma of the primary word linked to the Perseus LSJ table, 4) a link to Seddon's explanation of the term, 5) a simple definition, which is accurate for the Enchiridion, 6) a simple explanation if needed, 7) the author who lists the term as being significant (L = Long, S = Seddon, T = Thurot), 8) the Enchiridion frequency (based on Perseus max frequency), 9) Epictetus' (Arrian's) total frequency for the Discourses, Fragments and Enchiridion combined, 10) the LetsReadGreek Enchiridion Vocabulary ID (originally seeded by Perseus' numbers, but changing as corrections are made.

 

Enchiridion Special Terms (not including all ethical/behavioral words)
ID GPhrase GW SeddonLink Gloss Explanation Author EnchX EpicX EnchVocabID
2 ἀγαθός ἀγαθός
ἀγαθος
good something agathos is that which truly benefits the person who possessis it, understood by the Stoics to be 'virtue',… SL 13 272 3
1 τὸ ἀγαθόν ἀγαθός
ἀγαθος
the good
T 13 272 3
3 ἀδιάφορος ἀδιάφορος
ἀδιαφορος
indifferent things that are neither good nor bad SL 1 18 16
4 τὸ ἀδιάφορον ἀδιάφορος
ἀδιαφορος
the indifferents a Stoic term for things that are neither good nor bad T 1 18 16
5 αἰδήμων αἰδήμων
αἰδημων
self-respecting of someone who possesses αἰδως, self-respect, honor, modesty, or a sense of shame. ST 5 48 25
6 αἰδώς αἰδώς

integrity,conscience
L 2 15 27
7 αἰρεῖν αἱρέω

*to take, seize, catch; mid., take for oneself, choose; pass. be chosen
T 1 15 28
8 αίσθησις αίσθησις

perception
L


9 αἰσχρόν αἰσχρός

shameful, ugly
T 2 60 33
10 ἀκολυθία ἀκολουθία

consequence (logic); sequence, succession; agreement (grammar)
T 1 1 41
11 ακόλυθος ἀκόλουθος

consequent (logic); τὰ ἀκόλουθα the consequential things* a variant formed on ἀκολυθία (Thurot p. 51) T 2 18 42
12 ἀκώλυτος ἀκώλυτος

unimpeded, unconstrained, unhindered
LT 1 45 45
13 ἀλλότριος ἀλλότριος

another's, dependent on others
T 8 85 53
28 τὰ ἀλλότρια ἀλλότριος

another's; τὰ ἀλλότρια things belonging to others, that are not yours

8 85 53
14 ἄλογος ἄλογος

irrational
L


15 ἁμαρτάνω ἁμαρτάνω

to err, make a mistake
L 1 29 62
16 ἀνανάγκαστος ἀνανάγκαστος

unimpeded, unconstrained
L


17 ἀνεμποδιιτος ἀνεμποδιιτος

unimpeded, unconstrained
L


18 ἀνεξέταστος ἀνεξέταστος

unexamined
L


19 ἄνθρωπος ἄνθρωπος

human being
L 7 373 96
20 ἀξία ἀξία

worth (cf. ἄξιος worthy)
T 3 27 108
21 ἀπάθεια ἀπάθεια
ἀπαθεια
peace of mind, without passion, serenity A condition of one who is in the state of eudaimwn ST 2 11 115
22 ἀπαθής ἀπαθής

unimpassioned, unmoved
L


23 ἀπαίδευτος ἀπαίδευτος
ἀπαιδευτος
uneducated the condition from which the Stoic prokopton 'beginner' tries to save themselves from, the condition of id S 1 9 116
24 ἀπαραπόδιστος ἀπαραπόδιστος

unimpeded, unconstrained
LT 1 19 124
25 ἀπόδειξις ἀπόδειξις

proof
LT 3 18 142
26 ἀπόλυτος ἀπόλυτος

detached a)po/lutos (?) L


29 ἀποπρωηγμένος ἀπόρω

dispreferred
L


27 ἀπροαίρετος ἀπροαίρετος

not up to us, things independent of the moral character
SL


30 ἀπροηγέομαι ἀπροηγέομαι

dispreferred
S


31 ἀρετή ἀρετή
ἀρετη
excellence, virtue if you possess it, you are becoming eu)daimwn (not in the Enchiridion) S


32 ἀρρώστημα ἀρρώστημα

ailment
L


33 ἀσφαλής ἀσαφής

secure*
T 1 1 180
34 ἀσθενής ἀσθενής

weak, strengthless
T 1 8 182
35 ἀσκήσις ἀσκήσις

training, exercise, practice, education the actions of someone learning to become a stoic SL


36 ἀσύνακτοι ἀσύνακτος

*incompatible, incoherent, illogical,
T 1 2 184
37 ἀσφάλεια ἀσφάλεια

security, surety*
T


38 ἀταραξία ἀταραξία
ἀταραξία
tranquility, imperturbability, without disturbance or trouble, peace of mind, scerenity the calm state of the soul which is not troubled by passions or emotions STL 2 16 187
39 ἀταράχος ἀταράχος

undisturbed
L


40 αὐτεξούσιας αὐτεξούσιας

completely in one's power
L


41 ἀφορμάω ἀφορμάω

to refuse, reject (i.e. the opposite of impulse); subt. an impulse not to act
T 2 13 206
42 ἀφορμή ἀφορμή
ἀφορμη
repulsion, negative impulse
LST* 3 35 207
43 ἀφρωσύνη ἀφρωσύνη

lack of intelligence
L


44 ἀφυΐα ἀφυία

*want of natural power or faculty; natural unfitness for
T 1 1 209
45 βλαβερόν βλαβερός

harm, injury; βλαβερόν πάσχω 'suffer harm';
T 2 10 221
46 βλαβή βλάβη

harm*
T* 3 13 222
47 βλάπτω βλάπτω

to harm
T* 13 62 224
48 βούλησις βούλησις
βουλησις
wish, reasonable desire one of three eu)patheia experienced only by the Stoic wise person S 1 4 235
49 γνώμη γνώμη

intelligence
L 3 16 250
50 δαιμῶν δαιμῶν

divine spirit
L


51 διαζευγμένον διαζεύγνυμαι

*part, separate; divide, distinguish; disjunctive proposition
T 1 2 273
53 διάνοια διάνοια

mind, thought, process of thinking, thinking faculty
L 1 16 279
54 διαρθρόω διαρθρόω

*to divide; to complete in detail; to distinguish, perceive
T*


55 διαρθρωτικός διαρθρωτικός

*explanatory
T 1 1 280
52 διάθρωσις διάρθωσις

*articulation, distinct statement, title of work by Chrysippus
T*


56 δόγμα δόγμα

judgment, opinion
LT 6 132 303
57 δοκέω δοκέω

to seem, appear
L 12 209 306
58 δουλεία δουλεία

*slavery, bondage
T*


59 δουλεύειν δουλεύω

to be a slave
T 1 17 312
60 δοῦλος δοῦλος

slavish, servile, subject, enslaved
T* 2 70 313
61 δύναμις δύναμις

rational faculty
LT 5 88 316
62 ἐγκράτεια ἐγκράτεια

self-control, endurance
T 1 2 329
63 ἐκκλίνω ἐκκλίνω

to avoid; ὃ ἐκκλίνεται 'what can be avoided', to be averse to
T 5 29 361
64 ἔκκλισις ἔκκλισις
ἐκκλισις
aversion, avoidance
SLT* 6 62 362
65 ἐκτός ἐκτός
ἐκτος
external; ta\ e)/kta the externals things that are 'not up to us', the indifferent things ST 5 52 370
66 ἐλεγκτικός ἐλεγκτικός

refutative
L 1 4 376
67 ἐλευθερία ἐλευθερία
ἐλευθερία
freedom what you are if you make the right decisions SLT 2 37 377
68 ἐλεύθερος ἐλεύθερος

free
T 4 97 378
69 ἐμποδίζω ἐμποδίζω

pass. to be hampered, hindered, embarrassed, thwarted
T 4 33 389
70 ἐμπόδιος ἐμπόδιος

an impediment, to interfere with…
T* 3 5 390
71 ἔμφυτος ἔμφυτος

innate
L


72 ἔννοια ἔννοια

concept
L


73 ἔξω ἔξω

externally*
T 6 40 421
74 ἐπαγγελία ἐπαγγελία

profession
L 2 18 423
77 τὰ ἐπὶ ἐμοί ἐπί

things in my power*
T 77 642 439
150 οὐκ ἐφ᾽ ἡμῖν ἐπί

not up to us
LT 77 642 439
75 τὰ ἐφ᾽ ἡμῖν ἐπί

things that are in our power
ST 77 642 439
76 ἐφ᾽ ἡμῖν ἐπί

up to us, in our power, depending on us
SL 77 642 439
80 τὰ ἐπὶ σοί ἐπί

things in your power*
T 77 642 439
79 ἐπιθυμία ἐπιθυμία
ἐπιθυμία
passion
L 1 19 449
78 ἐπιθυμία ἐπιθυμία
ἐπιθυμία
desire, appetite, yearning one of the four pathh (desires) S 1 19 449
81 ἔργον ἔργον

function
L 20 147 479
82 τὰ ἐσω ἔσω

internal things*
T 2 11 495
83 ἔσωθεν ἔσωθεν

internal, internally
T 1 10 496
84 εὐδαιμονία εὐδαιμονία
εὐδαιμονία
happiness, living well, flourishing this is the goal of life S 1 15 505
85 εὐδαίμων εὐδαίμων
εὐδαιμων
happy, flourishing
SL


86 εὐλάβεια εὐλάβεια
εὐλαβεια
caution one of the three paqeia experienced by only the Stoic sofos SL


87 εὐλόγιστον εὐλόγιστος

good reasoning
L


88 εὐπάθεια εὐπάθεια
εὐπαθεια
good feeling(s) the stoics thought there were three primary eu)paqeia: boulhsis, xara, eulabeia (versus epiqumia, h)donh, fobos) SL


89 εὐροέω εὐροέω

to flow well, be smooth and untroubled*
T 1 13 512
90 εὔροια βίου εὔροιααβίου

good flow of life; peace, prosperity, etc. = h( eu(roia S


91 εὐσέβεια εὐσέβεια

*piety, reverence, duty
T 2 2 513
92 εὐσεβής εὐσεβής
εὐσεβης
dutiful, pious you are this when/if you revere the gods SL 1 9 514
93 εὐσταθεῖα εὐσταθεῖα

robustness
L


94 εὐσχημοσύνη εὐσχημοσύνη

decency
L


95 εὐτυχία εὐτυχία

good fortune
L


96 Ζεύς Ζεύς
Ζευς
Zeus The name for God. Zeus, God and 'the gods' are used interchangeably S 1 106 530
97 ζηλοτυπία ζηλοτυπία

jealousy
T 1 3 532
98 ἡγεμονικός ἡγεμονικός

mind, governing faculty, commanding faculty (in the heart) it allows one to receive impressions, assent to them, form intentions and react rationally SLT 2 26 539
99 ἡδονή ἡδονή
ἡδονη
pleasure one of the four primary pathh/ S 2 26 542
100 ἡμέτερος ἡμέτερος

our
T 2 12 551
101 θαυμάζω θαυμάζω

to be amazed
T 3 56 565
102 θεός θεός
θεος
God The supreme rational being who made the best world there is to be made; we must show reverence to him; The plural and singular refer to the same. ST 10 257 574
103 θεωρέω θεωρέω

study
L 1 15 578
104 θεώρημα θεώρημα

principles
LT 6 25 579
105 θεωρία θεωρία

study
L


106 ἴδιος ἴδιος

one's own, private*
T 1 62 589
107 ἰδιώτης ἰδιώτης
ἰδιωτης
a common, private or uneducated person
ST 7 29 590
108 ἰδιωτικός ἰδιωτικός

*of a private person (versus public office), layman; of a person untrained in Stoicism
T* 2 5 591
109 ἰδιωτισμός ἰδιωτισμός
ἰδιοτισμος
the manner of a commoner; vulgar
ST* 2 2 592
110 καθηγέομαι καθηγέομαι

*to lead, instruct, explain; in Logic, to be antecedent,
T 2 6 608
112 κάθηκον καθήκον

appropriate, appropriate action, proper function, duty these are part of the 2nd topoi: the dicipline of action SLT


111 καθήκω καθήκω

*to be meet, fit, proper, consistent with duty
T* 4 34 609
113 κακία κακία
κακία
vice, badness done by i)diwths, not by the sofos; the three Stoic categories are areth, adiaforos, and kakia ST 2 20 620
114 κακοδαιμωνία κακοδαιμωνία

unhappiness
L


115 κακός κακός

bad, evil; fault 33.9
SLT 11 292 622
116 καλός καλός
καλος
fine, beautiful, honorable, proper 2.2
SLT 6 255 626
117 καλὸς καὶ ἀγαθός καλόσσκαὶὶἀγαθός

excellent man
L


118 κανών κανών

standard
LT 1 18 628
119 καρτερία καρτερία

endurance, patience
T 1 4 629
120 καταλείψις καταλείψις

*leaving behind, a legacy; posterity
T


121 καταληπτικός καταληπτικός

*to be abandoned, left behind, undisputed
T 1 3 635
122 κατασκευή κατασκευή

constitution
L


124 κατόρθωμα κατόρθωμα
κατορθωμα
a right, complete, or perfect action
S


125 κινέω κινέω

to move
T 3 39 653
126 κίνησις κίνησις

motivation
L


127 κινητικός κινητικός

*stimulating, exciting, spontaneous; moveable, mobile
T*


128 κοινωνικός κοινωνικός

*held in common, social, sociable
T 1 11 656
129 κόσμιος κόσμιος

modest, moderate, politely
T 2 10 660
130 κριτήριον κριτήριον

standard
L


131 κύριος κύριος

authoritative
L 3 67 678
132 κωλυτός κωλυτός

hindered, subject to hindrance
T 1 12 683
133 κωλύω κωλύω

to be against, hinder, compel(?); οὐδὲν κωλύσει be no objection (Oldfather)
T 4 70 684
134 λογικός λογικός

rational, rational faculty
L


135 λόγος λόγος

rationality
L 13 167 696
136 λύπη λύπη
λυπη
distress, (mental) pain one of the four primary pathe ST


137 μάχη μάχη

conflict
LT 1 39 717
138 μεγαλόφρων μεγαλόφρων

*high minded, generous; arrogant
T 1 4 718
139 εἰμαρμένη μείρομαι

fate
LT


140 νόμος νόμος

law
L 2 27 784
141 οἴησις οἴησις

opinion
L


142 οἰκειόω οἰκειόω

*to make a person one's friend; adapt, make fit or suitable; in Stoic Philos., to be endeared by nature, Chrysipp.Stoic. 3.43.
T 2 10 797
143 οἰκείωσις οἰκείωσις

appropriation
L


144 ὄνομα ὄνομα

identification
L


145 ὀρέγω ὀρέγω

to desire, 'will to get'
T 7 66 834
146 ὄρεξις ὄρεξις
ὄρεξις
desire directed only at virtue SLT* 7 68 835
147 ὀρθὴ χρήσις ὀρθὴὴχρήσις

correct use
L


148 ὁρμάω ὁρμάω

to choose, act on impulse
T 3 45 841
149 ὁρμή ὁρμή
ὁρμή
impulse to act, choice, intention; preference, positive impulse
SLT* 3 39 843
151 οὐσία οὐσία

substance
L 2 41 867
152 πάθος πάθος
παθος
passion, disturbing or violent emotions, excessive impulse does not occur in Handbook. Stoics defined four: epithumia, fobos, hedonh, lupe SL


153 παιδεία παιδεία

training, education
L


154 παιδευτής παιδευτής

trainer
L


155 παρακολευθέω παρακολευθέω

attend to
L


156 παραμετρέω παραμετρέω

*to measure, compare; measure by a standard Chrysipp.Stoic
T 1 2 906
157 πενθέω πενθέω

to mourn
T 2 27 937
158 πένθος πένθος

grief
T* 1 9 939
159 πίστις πίστις

integrity, proof
L


160 πιστός πιστός
πιστος
trustworthy, trusworthiness A key characteristic of the prokopton's proairesis S 4 47 964
161 πνεῦμα πνεῦμα

breath
L


162 πολίτης κόσμου πολίτησσκόσμου

citizen of the world
L


163 πόρω πόρω

fate, destiny, one's lot in life (πεπρωηγμένος)
ST 1 5 999
164 προαίρεσις προαίρεσις
προαιρεσις
moral character, will, volition, intention, choice, moral choice The rational faculty we use to manage impressions - to give or withhold assent to the impression SLT 6 80 1016
165 προαιρετικός προαιρετικός

up to us
L


166 προηγέομαι προηγέομαι

preferred used of indifferent (adiaphoros) things, e.g. wealth, health, taking pleasure in the companionship of others, etc. SL


167 προκοπή προκοπή

progress Describes the goal Stoic new-student (prokopton) as he properly applies Stoic ethical teaching SLT 1 19 1027
168 προκοπτόν προκοπτόν

one who is making progress
S


169 προκόπτω προκόπτω
προκοπτω
to make progress
T* 5 23 1028
170 προκόπτω προκόπτω
προκοπτω
to make progress
S 5 23 1028
171 πρόληψις πρόληψις

preconception
L


172 πρόσωπον πρόσωπον

role
L 2 20 1050
173 προτρεπτικός προτρεπτικός

exhortative
L


174 σοφός σοφός
σοφος
a Stoic wise person, sage The ultimate acheivement of the Stoic philosopher S 1 10 1096
175 συγκατάθεσις συγκατάθεσις
συγκαταθεσις
assent a capacity of the proairesis to judge the significance of impressions SLT


176 συγκατατίθημι συγκατατίθημι

*with dat. only, agree with, assent or conform to; later in Act. to agree
T 1 21 1111
177 συγχέω συγχέω

*to confuse, blur; of the mind, confound, trouble, make of none effect, frustrate
T 1 7 1117
178 σύγχυσις σύγχυσις

*confusion; formation of a compound, Chrysipp.Stoic.2.153, al.
T


179 συμπλέκω συμπλέκω

*to mix up, interweave, confuse
T 3 8 1127
180 συμφέρω συμφέρω

*to bring together, gather; to be useful, profitable; to happen
T 1 37 1131
181 συμφέρον συμφέρω

interest
L 1 37 1131
182 συνακτικός συνακτικός

*able to bring together; conclusive, λόγοι Epict.Ench.44,
T* 1 1 1135
183 σχέσις σχέσις

social relationship
LT 2 17 1154
184 ταράσσω ταράσσω

to disturb, upset; pass: to be disturbed, upset, confounded; τὸ σὲ μὴ ταραχθῆναι your peace of mind
T 8 39 1166
185 ταρααη ταρααη

distress, disturbance, trouble
S


186 τέλος τέλος
τελος
end, goal The Stoic goal was eu)daimonia: properly maintaining one's proairesis, to follow God, to follow or live in accordance with Nature SL


187 τόπος τόπος

topics. Oi( tres topoi: the three topics Used to describe Epictetus three 'fields' of study: The Discipline of Desire, The Discipline of Action; The Discipline of Assent ST 3 57 1201
188 τραχύς τραχύς

harsh
T 1 8 1206
189 ὕλη ὕλη

matter, material
L


190 ὑπεξαίρεσις ὑπεξαίρεσις
ὑπεξαιρεσις
reservation
ST 1 2 1230
191 ὑπόληψις ὑπόληψις

opinion, assumption false opinions are to be avoided S 3 11 1244
192 φαντασία φαντασία
φαντασία
impression not only sensory, but also what we are aware of when thinking abstractly , remembering, etc.; we can assent or not assent to them SLT 11 118 1254
193 φθόνος φθόνος

envy
T 1 12 1260
194 φιλαυτία φιλαυτία

self-love
L


195 φιλοσοφία φιλοσοφία
φιλοσοφία
philosophy, love of widsom a mental discipline one uses to pursue eudaimonia S 2 25 1264
196 φιλόσοφος φιλόσοφος

philosopher, one who loves wisdom a Stoic person using the discipline to pursue eudaimonia S 11 149 1265
197 φόβος φόβος
φοβος
fear one of the four patheia: the Stoic is immune to these contrary to nature passions S


198 φρόνησις φρόνησις

intelligence
L


199 ὁ φρόνιμος φρόνιμος

wise man
L


123 κατὰ φύσιν φύσις
φυσις
in accordance with nature; ta kata' fusin natural things the goal of a Stoic is to live 'in accordance to nature' S 15 192 1282
200 φύσις φύσις
φυσις
nature, growth, the totality of everything Also: God, providence, fate, logos; the supreme organizing and creative principle SLT 15 192 1282
201 φύω φύω

*to bring forth, produce; become; c. inf., to be formed or disposed by nature to do so and so
T 15 180 1283
202 χαρά χαρά
χαρα
joy one of the three eu)paqeia S


203 χράομαι χράομαι

*to furnish; to lack or be in need of; to experience; to use
T 6 101 1294
204 χρῆσις χρῆσις

use
LT* 4 41 1300
205 ψεῦδος ψεῦδος

*falsehood, lie; in Logic, false conclusion, fallacy,
T 2 24 1311
206 ψυχή ψυχή

mind, soul
L 1 63 1317
207 ὠφέλεια ὠφέλεια

*help, aid; profit, advantage, source of gain
T 2 11 1328
208 ὠφελέω ὠφελέω

to benefit; pass. to derive benefit from
T* 3 66 1329