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Reading 09: May 18

Chapters 21.1-24.1 (Chapters 21-23, 24.1)
Translations Due Sunday, May 25 (midnight CST)
Grammar Questions Due Tuesday, May 27 (midnight CST)

 

Reading Selections by Group
Level Book Sections Title
Questions
Perseus
Notes
Basic 1
Enchiridion A philosopher will be ridiculed.
Optional 1
Enchiridion Keep your eyes on death foremost.
Optional 2
Enchiridion Be a philosopher to yourself
Optional 3
Enchiridion Be a nobody with honor; not a somebody without honor  
Advanced 1
Discourses Why your parents should let you study philosophy
NA
 
NA
Advanced 2
Disc Why be a philosopher in secret
NA
 
NA

 

Other Aids
Greek Sentences
Instructions for sending in translations
Audio File
An mp3 audio recording(s) using Erasmian pronunciation.
An mp3 audio recording(s) of the weekly Enchiridion reading using 'Living Koine' pronunciation: <----Instructions: Right click file name and select "save file as" for Microsoft Windows OS.
Greek Text (Pdf file of the reading)

Schenkl's 1916 Text of the weekly reading (Text used by this group and Perseus). A several page pdf file.

Diglott weekly reading with Greek text and English translation (4x6 index card size pdf file)

Diglott weekly reading Greek text, English translation and vocabulary (A 8.5 x 11 2 page pdf file.)

Notes on the Greek Text Schweighauser's 1799 Reading 09 (Schenkl's Source ) with Wolf's Latin Translation and notes. A several page pdf file, but missing p. 21. Heyne's 1756 Epicteti Enchiridium Graece et Latine with notes and Upton's Latin translation. A several page pdf file. Thurot's 1903 Reading 09 (French with Greek notes and commentary).  A several page pdf file.
Vocabulary
Vocabulary of the entire Enchiridion with frequency statistics and glosses Special vocabulary: a table of the 100+ words that Epictetus uses frequently or in a special sense.
Seddon's Table of Key Terms!

A note on Chapter 24

Chapter 24 is broken up into three readings, due to the length of the chapter. In the entire Enchiridion there are only seven chapters which have more than 130 words. The stats are as follows:

Chapter 51: 164(three sections, a lenghty diatribe on the need to start NOW)
Chapter 32: 201(three sections, explanataion of why and how to use oracles)
Chapter 25: 206 (five sections, each using a rhetorical question and then answering it)
Chapter 1: 236 (five sections, introducing and explaining the key concepts of Epictetus' philosophy)
Chapter 24: 285 (five sections, a Reasoning off of several hypthetical 'arguments' regarding self-respect, self-esteem and being important)
Chapter 29: 352 (seven sections, Consider what is required before you do something - many sporting parallels)
Chapter 33: 469 (sixteen sections, A collection of Do's and Dont's)

Each chapter of the Enchiridion is an excerpt from the larger Discourses (some now lost). Chapter 24 is a different type of exerpt than the rest of the Enchiridion, and from what exists in chapters 1-23. Read the introduction of chapter 24 on Reading Page 10 for a fuller explanation.

Aids to Reading the Greek

Special Words

The meanings of the LSJ lexicon do not always point out or fit the 'Stoic' use of terms. The following list of words which are the behavioral, ethical and philosophical terms that occur in the reading. Some of them are 'Stoic specific'; most are not. As the special vocabulary page is being built, a more complete 'special lexicon' will become available to help understand the Greek word. The Stoic Groups also has a posting of terms (the Greek is transliterated). Here are some of the brief glosses. The freqencies are for the entire Enchiridion.

   
αἰσχρός (2) shameful, disgraceful
ἄξιος (7) worth, value
ἀπόλλυμι (6) to lose, to ruin
ἀρέσκω (2) to please
ἀρκέω (1) pass. be satisified with, content
ἀρχή (4) political office
ἀτιμία (2) lack of honor or value
ἄτιμος (1) without honor or value
βέλτιστος (3) best
βιόω (3) to live, to be
βούλομαι (11) to want, to aim at
βούλομαι (11) to wish, want
δεινός (4) dreadful, terrible
δοκέω (12) to seem
δύναμαι (18) can, be able to
ἐμμένω (2) to hold (these views), to abide, to persist in
ἐνθυμέομαι (3) to think , to entertain in thoughts
ἔνστασις (1) plan of life, disposition
ἔξεστι (1) it is permitted, to have the opportunity
ἔξω (6) outward; external things
ἐπί (77) up to; ἐπὶ σοί under your control
ἐπιθυμέω (2) to long for, crave, set one's heart on


ἔργον (20) task, business
ἔχω (37) οὕτως ἔχου hold fast, stick to the rules, hold tightly to
ἡσσάομαι (2) to be defeated, worsted
θάνατος (5) death
θαυμάζω (3) pass.: to be impressed, to admire
θεός (10) god
θλίβω (2) pass. to be weighed down, oppressed, troubled
ἱκανός (3) capable, sufficient, able to do
κακός (11) bad, a bad state, bad thing
καταγελάω (4) ridicule, laughter (mostly in middle)
καταμωκάομαι (1) to jeer at
ὀφρύς (2) a high brow, supercilious look, profound look
παρασκευάζω (1) to prepare, get ready
πλεῖστος (1) greatest
προσλαμβάνω (1) to receive
στρέφω (3) to turn
ταπεινός (1) abject, contemptible, humiliating
τάσσω (3) pass. to be appointed, put into, assigned to a post
τυγχάνω (14) to gain; τὸ ἀρχῆς τυχεῖν to gain political office, acquire status, achieve power
φαίνω (11) pass. to appear, seem to be
φιλοσοφία (2) philosophy
φιλόσοφος (11) a philosopher
φυγή (2) exile

Corrections to the Text

 

Reading 9: Chapters 21.1-24.1 (Chapters 21-23, 24.1)

Reading 9 - Basic Reading Enchiridion Chapter 22.1
Apparatus
Translation
Answers
Vocabulary

   Chapter 22 - Κεφάλαιον κβʹ
[22.1a] Εἰ φιλοσοφίας ἐπιθυμεῖς, παρασκευάζου αὐτόθεν ὡς καταγελασθησόμενος, ὡς καταμωκησομένων σου πολλῶν, [22.1b] ὡς ἐρούντων ὅτι "ἄφνω φιλόσοφος ἡμῖν ἐπανελήλυθε" καὶ "πόθεν ἡμῖν αὕτη ἡ ὀφρύς;" [22.1c] σὺ δὲ ὀφρὺν μὲν μὴ σχῇς· [22.1d] τῶν δὲ βελτίστων σοι φαινομένων οὕτως ἔχου, ὡς ὑπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ τεταγμένος εἰς ταύτην τὴν χώραν· [22.1e] μέμνησό τε διότι, ἐὰν μὲν ἐμμείνῃς τοῖς αὐτοῖς, οἱ καταγελῶντές σου τὸ πρότερον οὗτοί σε ὕστερον θαυμάσονται, [22.1f] ἐὰν δὲ ἡττηθῇς αὐτῶν, διπλοῦν προσλήψῃ καταγέλωτα.

Basic Questions

Note: If you desire to get THE answer to the question and the answers to the questions suggested by the Greekstudy members, you may either view the appropriate Greekstudy email which includes the answers, or alternately (if you missed the email) send in your answers to the question(s). I'll be glad to email you the suggested answer and the answers sent in by the Greekstudy members.

Q1 22.1ab. The word ὡς + a future participle is used three times. How would you categorize this structure. Take a look at Schenkl's Appendix of words under ὡς. (Download the pdf file of pages 710-713 of Schenkl's appendix of words.)

Q2 22.1b. "ἄφνω φιλόσοφος ἡμῖν ἐπανελήλυθε. What is the tense of ἐπανελήλυθε and what is the best way to translate it. How does Greek indirect speech differ in tense from English reported speech. Any grammar references?

Q3 22.1b. αὕτη ἡ ὀφρύς. What is the meaning of ὀφρύς? Does the word αὕτη add a derogatory sense?

Q4 22.1d. τῶν δὲ βελτίστων σοι φαινομένων οὕτως ἔχου. How do you translate this phrase? How is the participle being used? (Can you find the section in Smyth where βελτίστων is listed in a chart with other adjectives?)

Q5 22.1d τεταγμένος. Parse this word. Why is the present tense form of this word τάσσω? What happened to the mute/stop consonant at the end of the stem? Can you list any other words like this?

Q6. Line 22.1e. μέμνησό τε διότι. What does the word διότι mean in this phrase? What other words does διότι follow? (Look in Schenkl's appendix of words under ὅτι).

Q7. Line 22.1e. ἐὰν ἐμμείνῃς..., οὗτοί σε ὕστερον θαυμάσονται. & ἐὰν ἡττηθῇς ... προσλήψῃ.... What type of conditional phrases are these sentences (protasis = ἐὰν + subjunctive, apodosis = future tense)? Smyth Reference?

Q8. Line 22.1f καταγέλωτα. What part of speech is this word, a participle or a noun? Can you list some other words that are like it in form?

 

Reading 9 - Optional Readings Enchiridion Chapters 21, 23, 24.1
Apparatus
Translation
Answers
Vocabulary

Optional 1 Reading
Chapter 21 - Κεφάλαιον καʹ
[21.1a] Θάνατος καὶ φυγὴ καὶ πάντα τὰ δεινὰ φαινόμενα πρὸ ὀφθαλμῶν ἔστω σοι καθ᾽ ἡμέραν, μάλιστα δὲ πάντων ὁ θάνατος· [21.1b] καὶ οὐδὲν οὐδέποτε οὔτε ταπεινὸν ἐνθυμηθήσῃ οὔτε ἄγαν ἐπιθυμήσεις τινός.

Optional 2 Reading
Chapter 23 - Κεφάλαιον κγʹ
[23.1a] Ἐάν ποτέ σοι γένηται ἔξω στραφῆναι πρὸς τὸ βούλεσθαι ἀρέσαι τινί, ἴσθι ὅτι ἀπώλεσας τὴν ἔνστασιν. [23.1b] ἀρκοῦ οὖν ἐν παντὶ τῷ εἶναι φιλόσοφος εἰ δὲ καὶ δοκεῖν βούλει [τῷ εἶναι], σαυτῷ φαίνου καὶ ἱκανὸς ἔσῃ.

Optional 3 Reading
Chapter 24.1 - Κεφάλαιον κδʹ (only section 24.1)
[24.1a] Οὗτοί σε οἱ διαλογισμοὶ μὴ θλιβέτωσαν "ἄτιμος ἐγὼ βιώσομαι καὶ οὐδεὶς οὐδαμοῦ". [24.1b] εἰ γὰρ ἡ ἀτιμία ἐστὶ κακόν, οὐ δύνασαι ἐν κακῷ εἶναι δι᾽ ἄλλον, οὐ μᾶλλον ἢ ἐν αἰσχρῷ· [24.1c] μή τι οὖν σόν ἐστιν ἔργον τὸ ἀρχῆς τυχεῖν ἢ παραληφθῆναι ἐφ᾽ ἑστίασιν; οὐδαμῶς. [24.1d] πῶς οὖν ἔτι τοῦτ᾽ ἔστιν ἀτιμία; [24.1e] πῶς δὲ οὐδεὶς οὐδαμοῦ ἔσῃ, ὃν ἐν μόνοις εἶναί τινα δεῖ τοῖς ἐπὶ σοί, ἐν οἷς ἔξεστί σοι εἶναι πλείστου ἀξίῳ;

 

Optional Questions

Q9 Line 23.1a στραφῆναι. Parse this word. Is it active or passive in form? Why is there no θ if it is passive?

Q10 Line 23.1a. ἀπώλεσας. Parse this word. Is there an augment in the stem? What would the aorist participle masculine singular be? What would the aorist active infintive be? What would the 2s aorist middle imperative be?

Q11 Line 23.1b ἀρκοῦ οὖν ἐν παντὶ τῷ εἶναι φιλόσοφος. Translate this phrase. Why is the article τῷ in this phrase? Why is τῷ in the dative? (Note the same emended instance in the following phrase [τῷ εἶναι],).

Q12 Line 23.1b. βούλει. Parse this word? What immediate flag/fact tells this verb is not a Present active indicative 3rd person singular?

Q13 Line 24.1b ἡ ἀτιμία ἐστὶ κακόν. Parse κακόν. How can it agree with ἀτιμία? Any reference in Smyth, Blass DeBrunner or elsewhere?

Q14 Line 24.1b. οὐ μᾶλλον ἢ ἐν αἰσχρῷ. Translate this phrase. What is the best way to translate μᾶλλον? What is Epictetus actually saying about κακίῳ and αἰσχρῷ?

Q15 Line 24.1c. μή τι. Why is this word not written μήτι (both Boter and Schenkl have the same text)?

Q 16 Line 24.1e ἐν μόνοις δεῖ τοῖς ἐπὶ σοί, ἐν οἷς.... How does the word μόνοις function here, as an adjective or a noun? What does the word τοῖς refer to? Could you say that the words/phrases μόνοις and τοῖς ἐπὶ σοί are in the attributive position?

Q17. Line 24.1e ἔξεστί σοι εἶναι πλείστου ἀξίῳ; Why is ἀξίῳ in the dative. Smyth?

Q18 Line 24.1e ἔξεστί σοι εἶναι πλείστου ἀξίῳ; Translate this phrase. The standard translation of ἔξεστί is 'it is allowed', 'it is permitted' or 'it is possible' (here, followed by the dative of person + infinitive). Amazingly, almost every translation uses none of the standard above glosses. Boter translates it as "in which you have the opportunity to be of the greatest value." and Mattheson "where you may achieve the highest value."; White 'it is open to you'; Rolleston 'in your power to be'. Why do all these translators feel the word 'possible' does is not adequate?

Reading 9 - Advanced Reading 1 Discourses 2.7.5-7
Text
Questions
Notes
Apparatus
Answers
Vocabulary

Discourses 2.7.5-7 Justifying studying philosophy to your parents.

[5] καὶ τοῦτον ἀπολογισμὸν ἔδει φέρειν πρὸς τοὺς γονεῖς τοὺς ἀγανακτοῦντας ἐπὶ τῷ φιλοσοφεῖν τὰ τέκνα. "οὐκοῦν ἁμαρτάνω, πάτερ, καὶ οὐκ οἶδα τὸ ἐπιβάλλον ἐμαυτῷ καὶ προσῆκον: εἰ μὲν οὐδὲ μαθητόν ἐστιν οὐδὲ διδακτόν, τί μοι ἐγκαλεῖς; εἰ δὲ διδακτόν, δίδασκε: εἰ δὲ σὺ μὴ δύνασαι, ἄφες με μαθεῖν παρὰ τῶν λεγόντων εἰδέναι. [6] ἐπεὶ τί δοκεῖς; ὅτι θέλων περιπίπτω κακῷ καὶ ἀποτυγχάνω τοῦ ἀγαθοῦ; μὴ γένοιτο. τί οὖν ἐστι τὸ αἴτιον τοῦ ἁμαρτάνειν με; [7] ἡ ἄγνοια. οὐ θέλεις οὖν ἀποθῶμαι τὴν ἄγνοιαν; τίνα πώποτε ὀργὴ[ν] ἐδίδαξε τὰ κυβερνητικά, τὰ μουσικά; τὰ βιωτικὰ οὖν διὰ τὴν ὀργήν σου δοκεῖς ὅτι μαθήσομαι;"

Long's Translation 1890.

and this excuse children should make to those parents who dislike that they should study philosophy. " Am I to blame then, sir, and ignorant of my duty, and of what is incumbent on me? If this is neither to be learned, nor taught, why do you find fault with me? If it is to be taught, pray teach me yourself; or, if you cannot, let me learn it from those who profess to understand it. For what think you; that I voluntarily fall into evil, and miss good? Heaven forbid ! What, then, is the cause of my faults? Ignorance. Are you not willing, then, that I should get rid of my ignorance? Who was ever taught the art of music, or navigation, by anger? Do you expect, then, that your anger should teach me the art of living? "

 

Reading 9 - Advanced Reading 2 Discourses 4.8.17-20
Text
Questions
Notes
Apparatus
Answers
Vocabulary

Discourses 4.8.17-20 Why be a Philospher in Secret


[17] διὰ τοῦτο καλῶς Εὐφράτης ἔλεγεν ὅτι "ἐπὶ πολὺ ἐπειρώμην λανθάνειν φιλοσοφῶν καὶ ἦν μοι", φησίν, "τοῦτο ὠφέλιμον. πρῶτον μὲν γὰρ ᾔδειν, ὅσα καλῶς ἐποίουν, ὅτι οὐ διὰ τοὺς θεατὰς ἐποίουν, ἀλλὰ δι᾽ ἐμαυτόν: ἤσθιον ἐμαυτῷ καλῶς, κατεσταλμένον εἶχον τὸ βλέμμα, τὸν περίπατον: πάντα ἐμαυτῷ καὶ θεῷ. [18] εἶτα ὥσπερ μόνος ἠγωνιζόμην, οὕτως μόνος καὶ ἐκινδύνευον: οὐδὲν ἐμοὶ δράσαντι τὸ αἰσχρὸν ἢ ἀπρεπὲς τὸ τῆς φιλοσοφίας ἐκινδυνεύετο, οὐδ᾽ ἔβλαπτον τοὺς πολλοὺς ὡς φιλόσοφος ἁμαρτάνων. [19] διὰ τοῦτο οἱ μὴ εἰδότες μου τὴν ἐπιβολὴν ἐθαύμαζον, πῶς πᾶσι φιλοσόφοις χρώμενος καὶ συζῶν αὐτὸς οὐκ ἐφιλοσόφουν. [20] καὶ τί κακόν, ἐν οἷς ἐποίουν ἐπιγιγνώσκεσθαι τὸν φιλόσοφον, ἐν δὲ τοῖς συμβόλοις μή;" βλέπε, πῶς ἐσθίω, πῶς πίνω, πῶς καθεύδω, πῶς ἀνέχομαι, πῶς ἀπέχομαι, πῶς συνεργῶ, πῶς ὀρέξει χρῶμαι, πῶς ἐκκλίσει, πῶς τηρῶ τὰς σχέσεις τὰς φυσικὰς ἢ ἐπιθέτους ἀσυγχύτως καὶ ἀπαραποδίστως: ἐκεῖθέν με κρῖνε, εἰ δύνασαι. [21] εἰ δ᾽ οὕτως κωφὸς εἶ καὶ τυφλός, ἵνα μηδὲ τὸν Ἥφαιστον ὑπολαμβάνῃς καλὸν χαλκέα, ἂν μὴ τὸ πιλίον ἴδῃς περὶ τὴν κεφαλὴν περικείμενον, τί κακὸν ὑφ᾽ οὕτως ἠλιθίου κριτοῦ ἀγνοεῖσθαι;

 

George Long Translation 1890

For this reason Euphrates3 used to say well, A long time I strove to be a philosopher without people knowing it; and this, he said, was useful to me: for first I knew that when I did any thing well, I did not do it for the sake of the spectators, but for the sake of myself: I ate well for the sake of myself; I had my countenance well composed and my walk: all for myself and for God. Then, as I struggled alone, so I alone also was in danger: in no respect through me, if I did anything base or unbecoming, was philosophy endangered; nor did I injure the many by doing any thing wrong as a philosopher. For this reason those who did not know my purpose used to wonder how it was that while I conversed and lived altogether with all philosophers, I was not a philosopher myself. And what was the harm for me to be known to be a philosopher by my acts and not by outward marks?4 See how I eat, how I drink, how I sleep, how I bear and forbear, how I co-operate, how I employ desire, how I employ aversion (turning from things), how I maintain the relations (to things) those which are natural or those which are acquired, how free from confusion, how free from hindrance. Judge of me from this, if you can. But if you are so deaf and blind that you cannot conceive even Hephaestus5 to be a good smith, unless you see the cap on his head, what is the harm in not being recognized by so foolish a judge?

 

Collected Notes on the text.

The order of the notes may be out of order in relation to the text.

Section 21.1 Notes click to expand    []

 

 

Section 22.1 Notes click to expand    []

 

 

Section 23.1 Notes click to expand    []

 

 

Section 24.1 Notes click to expand    []
Vocabulary 24.1a White p. 17 n10. 10. The word translated “task” here and below is ergon, which might also be translated by “function.”

 

 

Sentences numbered for sending in the translations

Optional Reading 1
[2101a] Θάνατος καὶ φυγὴ καὶ πάντα τὰ δεινὰ φαινόμενα πρὸ ὀφθαλμῶν ἔστω σοι καθ᾽ ἡμέραν, μάλιστα δὲ πάντων ὁ θάνατος·
[2101b] καὶ οὐδὲν οὐδέποτε οὔτε ταπεινὸν ἐνθυμηθήσῃ οὔτε ἄγαν ἐπιθυμήσεις τινός.

Basic Reading
[2201a] Εἰ φιλοσοφίας ἐπιθυμεῖς, παρασκευάζου αὐτόθεν ὡς καταγελασθησόμενος, ὡς καταμωκησομένων σου πολλῶν,
[2201b] ὡς ἐρούντων ὅτι "ἄφνω φιλόσοφος ἡμῖν ἐπανελήλυθε" καὶ "πόθεν ἡμῖν αὕτη ἡ ὀφρύς;"
[2201c] σὺ δὲ ὀφρὺν μὲν μὴ σχῇς·
[2201d] τῶν δὲ βελτίστων σοι φαινομένων οὕτως ἔχου, ὡς ὑπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ τεταγμένος εἰς ταύτην τὴν χώραν·
[2201e] μέμνησό τε διότι, ἐὰν μὲν ἐμμείνῃς τοῖς αὐτοῖς, οἱ καταγελῶντές σου τὸ πρότερον οὗτοί σε ὕστερον θαυμάσονται,
[2201f] ἐὰν δὲ ἡττηθῇς αὐτῶν, διπλοῦν προσλήψῃ καταγέλωτα.

Optional Reading 2
[2301a] Ἐάν ποτέ σοι γένηται ἔξω στραφῆναι πρὸς τὸ βούλεσθαι ἀρέσαι τινί, ἴσθι ὅτι ἀπώλεσας τὴν ἔνστασιν.
[2301b] ἀρκοῦ οὖν ἐν παντὶ τῷ εἶναι φιλόσοφος εἰ δὲ καὶ δοκεῖν βούλει [τῷ εἶναι], σαυτῷ φαίνου καὶ ἱκανὸς ἔσῃ.

Optional Reading 3
[2401a] Οὗτοί σε οἱ διαλογισμοὶ μὴ θλιβέτωσαν "ἄτιμος ἐγὼ βιώσομαι καὶ οὐδεὶς οὐδαμοῦ".
[2401b] εἰ γὰρ ἡ ἀτιμία ἐστὶ κακόν, οὐ δύνασαι ἐν κακῷ εἶναι δι᾽ ἄλλον, οὐ μᾶλλον ἢ ἐν αἰσχρῷ·
[2401c] μή τι οὖν σόν ἐστιν ἔργον τὸ ἀρχῆς τυχεῖν ἢ παραληφθῆναι ἐφ᾽ ἑστίασιν; οὐδαμῶς.
[2401d] πῶς οὖν ἔτι τοῦτ᾽ ἔστιν ἀτιμία;
[2401e] πῶς δὲ οὐδεὶς οὐδαμοῦ ἔσῃ, ὃν ἐν μόνοις εἶναί τινα δεῖ τοῖς ἐπὶ σοί, ἐν οἷς ἔξεστί σοι εἶναι πλείστου ἀξίῳ;

 

 

Table of Words

The local gloss is context-specific. The word-link and lemma-link are linked to the Perseus Hopper vocabulary tool. I have gone through the Greek lemma and verified them for accuracy - but there may still be some errors. Many of the definitions have been taken from the following translations: Mattheson, Boter, White, Oldfather and Long. If you have a better suggestion for a word, send in the word number, Greek word and suggested gloss, and I will add it into the vocabulary list.

A note of caution: Perseus does not always work as expected. The links are betacode which works better than sending in Greek Unicode lookups. But sometimes it still will not work. In addition, Perseus is often slow - if you see it cranking and cranking, try later, the server is too busy. An example of unexpected results is as follows: the neuter plural form ἀπαραπόδιστα returns 'not found'; the root lemma ἀπαραπόδιστος brings up its own correct entry. Some words are only listed in the Middle LSJ, not the main LSJ (e.g. οὐδέπω). So if you look up οὐδέπω in the Archimedes Harvard LSJ or your own personal copy, you won't find it.

The columns for vocabulary frequency are compiled from Perseus' Max frequency for the Enchiridion (EnchX) and all of Epictetus' works (EpicX including the Enchiridion). The New Testament frequencies are from Tischendorf's NT as provided by MorphGnt.org. Words are linked on betacode, but some lemmas do not link correctly (a problem that will be fixed over time), thus there are occasionally NTX freqencies that are missing or partial. When comparing the frequency of the various works, you should remember the Enchiridion (4983 words) is about the same length as the book of Hebrews (4953 words) and all Epictetus' writings (The Discourses - 75,177 words, Fragments - 4023 words,and Enchiridion - 4983 words; grand total - 84183) are 60% of the length of the New Testament (138,019 words). Although both the Epictus' works and the New Testament books are different in content and author, if you multiply the Epictetus frequency by 1.6 (EpicX x 1.6) you can come up with a comparable usage between the two works.

 

qryEnchiridionWords_ReadingsLemma
WordID Reference WordLink LemmaLink LocalGloss Construction POS Parsing EnchX EpicX NTX
1458 21.1 Θάνατος
θάνατος
death


5 64 120
1459 21.1 καὶ
καί
and


206 4196 8977
1460 21.1 φυγὴ
φυγή
exile


2 20 1
1461 21.1 καὶ
καί
and


206 4196 8977
1462 21.1 πάντα
πᾶς
all


27 426 1226
1463 21.1 τὰ

the things


502 8830 19787
1464 21.1 δεινὰ
δεινός
dreadful, terrible; τὰ δεινὰ φαινόμενα things that seem to be dreadful


4 25
1465 21.1 φαινόμενα
φαίνω
pass. to seem to be


11 110 32
1466 21.1 πρὸ
πρό
before


2 26 47
1467 21.1 ὀφθαλμῶν
ὀφθαλμός
an eye; pl. eyes


1 21 100
1468 21.1 ἔστω
εἰμί
to be


132 2174 2461
1469 21.1 σοι
σύ
you


96 1336 2903
1470 21.1 καθ᾽
κατά
καθ᾽ ἡμέραν every day, daily


15 221 471
1471 21.1 ἡμέραν
ἡμέρα
καθ᾽ ἡμέραν every day, daily


4 51 388
1472 21.1 μάλιστα
μάλιστα
μάλιστα δὲ πάντων most of all, especially


4 35 12
1473 21.1 δὲ
δέ
but


109 1649 2781
1474 21.1 πάντων
πᾶς
all


27 426 1226
1475 21.1

(untranslated w/ θάνατος)


502 8830 19787
1476 21.1 θάνατος
θάνατος
death


5 64 120
1477 21.1 καὶ
καί
and


206 4196 8977
1478 21.1 οὐδὲν
οὐδείς
none


33 445 235
1479 21.1 οὐδέποτε
οὐδέποτε
never


3 46 16
1480 21.1 οὔτε
οὔτε
neither


10 207 94
1481 21.1 ταπεινὸν
ταπεινός
abject, contemptible, humiliating


1 27 8
1482 21.1 ἐνθυμηθήσῃ
ἐνθυμέομαι
to think , to entertain in thoughts ; ἐνθυμηθήσῃ ταπεινὸν to have something contemptible in your thoughts


3 24 3
1483 21.1 οὔτε
οὔτε
nor


10 207 94
1484 21.1 ἄγαν
ἄγαν
excessively


1 3
1485 21.1 ἐπιθυμήσεις
ἐπιθυμέω
to long for, crave, desire


2 31 16
1486 21.1 τινός
τις
something, anything


163 3876
1487 22.1 Εἰ
εἰ
if


46 785 491
1488 22.1 φιλοσοφίας
φιλοσοφία
philosophy


2 25 1
1489 22.1 ἐπιθυμεῖς
ἐπιθυμέω
to long for, crave, set one's heart on


2 31 16
1490 22.1 παρασκευάζου
παρασκευάζω
to prepare, get ready


1 39 4
1491 22.1 αὐτόθεν
αὐτόθεν
from the start, on the spot


1 10
1492 22.1 ὡς
ὡς
to be + fut. participle

40 555 502
1493 22.1 καταγελασθησόμενος
καταγελάω
to laugh at, ridicule


4 26 3
1494 22.1 ὡς
ὡς
to + fut. participle

40 555 502
1495 22.1 καταμωκησομένων
καταμωκάομαι
to jeer at


1 1
1496 22.1 σου
σύ
you


96 1336 2903
1497 22.1 πολλῶν
πολύς
many people


18 200 413
1498 22.1 ὡς
ὡς
to be


40 555 502
1499 22.1 ἐρούντων
ἐρέω
to say (fut.)


2 58
1500 22.1 ὅτι
ὅτι
that


68 849 1299
1501 22.1 ἄφνω
ἄφνω
all of a sudden


1 6 3
1502 22.1 φιλόσοφος
φιλόσοφος
philosopher


11 149 1
1503 22.1 ἡμῖν
ἡμεῖς
us


27 27
1504 22.1 ἐπανελήλυθε
ἐπανέρχομαι
to come back to, to show up again; φιλόσοφος ἡμῖν ἐπανελήλυθε to turn philosopher on us


1 6 2
1505 22.1 καὶ
καί
and


206 4196 8977
1506 22.1 πόθεν
πόθεν
where?


4 51 29
1507 22.1 ἡμῖν
ἡμεῖς
us


27 27
1508 22.1 αὕτη
οὗτος
that


78 1657 1380
1509 22.1

the


502 8830 19787
1510 22.1 ὀφρύς
ὀφρύς
a high brow, supercilious look, profound look


2 9
1511 22.1 σὺ
σύ
you


96 1336 2903
1512 22.1 δὲ
δέ
but


109 1649 2781
1513 22.1 ὀφρὺν
ὀφρύς
a high brow, supercilious look, to look profound


2 9
1514 22.1 μὲν
μέν
now, well; (untranslated: italicized 'you' in English)


33 536 177
1515 22.1 μὴ
μή
not


89 1079 1033
1516 22.1 σχῇς
ἔχω
to put on; ὀφρὺν μὴ σχῇς do not put on the high brow, show a supercilious look


37 732 707
1517 22.1 τῶν

the


502 8830 19787
1518 22.1 δὲ
δέ
but


109 1649 2781
1519 22.1 βελτίστων
βέλτιστος
best


3 10
1520 22.1 σοι
σύ
you


96 1336 2903
1521 22.1 φαινομένων
φαίνω
pass. to appear


11 110 32
1522 22.1 οὕτως
οὕτως




33 406
1523 22.1 ἔχου
ἔχω
οὕτως ἔχου hold fast, stick to the rules, hold tightly to + ὡς

37 732 707
1524 22.1 ὡς
ὡς
as, as if + part.

40 555 502
1525 22.1 ὑπὸ
ὑπό
by


11 202 221
1526 22.1 τοῦ

(untranslated: w/ θεοῦ)


502 8830 19787
1527 22.1 θεοῦ
θεός
god


10 257 1312
1528 22.1 τεταγμένος
τάσσω
pass. to be appointed, put into, assigned to a post


3 17 9
1529 22.1 εἰς
εἰς
to


65 935 1769
1530 22.1 ταύτην
οὗτος
this


78 1657 1380
1531 22.1 τὴν

the


502 8830 19787
1532 22.1 χώραν
χώρα
place


3 28 28
1533 22.1 μέμνησό
μιμνήσκω
to remember


20 84
1534 22.1 τε
τε
and


13 132
1535 22.1 διότι
διότι
that + ἐὰν

6 9 25
1536 22.1 ἐὰν
ἐάν
if


85 817 333
1537 22.1 μὲν
μέν
(untranslated: emphasis)


33 536 177
1538 22.1 ἐμμείνῃς
ἐμμένω
to hold (these views), to abide, to persist in, to stick with


2 10 4
1539 22.1 τοῖς

to


502 8830 19787
1540 22.1 αὐτοῖς
αὐτός
them, the same (rules, views, principles)


80 1357 5568
1541 22.1 οἱ

who


502 8830 19787
1542 22.1 καταγελῶντές
καταγελάω
to ridicule, to laugh at (mostly in middle)


4 26 3
1543 22.1 σου
σύ
you


96 1336 2903
1544 22.1 τὸ

(untranslated)


502 8830 19787
1545 22.1 πρότερον
πρότερος
τὸ πρότερον previously, first, at first πρότερον…ὕστερον

10 142 10
1546 22.1 οὗτοί
οὗτος
those


78 1657 1380
1547 22.1 σε
σύ
you


96 1336 2903
1548 22.1 ὕστερον
ὕστερος
later πρότερον…ὕστερον

4 23 12
1549 22.1 θαυμάσονται
θαυμάζω
pass.: to be impressed, to admire


3 56 43
1550 22.1 ἐὰν
ἐάν
if


85 817 333
1551 22.1 δὲ
δέ
but


109 1649 2781
1552 22.1 ἡττηθῇς
ἡσσάομαι
to be defeated, worsted


2 13 3
1553 22.1 αὐτῶν
αὐτός
them


80 1357 5568
1554 22.1 διπλοῦν
διπλόος
doubly, twice, twice over


1 1
1555 22.1 προσλήψῃ
προσλαμβάνω
to receive; προσλήψῃ καταγέλωτα to be ridiculed, to attract laughter


1 14 12
1556 22.1 καταγέλωτα
καταγελάω
ridicule, laughter (mostly in middle)


4 26 3
1557 23.1 Ἐάν
ἐάν
if


85 817 333
1558 23.1 ποτέ
ποτέ
ever


12 178 29
1559 23.1 σοι
σύ
you


96 1336 2903
1560 23.1 γένηται
γίνομαι
to happen


27 402
1561 23.1 ἔξω
ἔξω
outward; external things


6 40 62
1562 23.1 στραφῆναι
στρέφω
to turn; ἔξω στραφῆναι to turn to externals, turn yourself outward


3 16 22
1563 23.1 πρὸς
πρός
to, towards + acc. + inf.

45 649 697
1564 23.1 τὸ

(untranslated) + inf.

502 8830 19787
1565 23.1 βούλεσθαι
βούλομαι
to want, to aim at + inf.

11 67 36
1566 23.1 ἀρέσαι
ἀρέσκω
to please


2 27 17
1567 23.1 τινί
τις
another person, someone


163 3876
1568 23.1 ἴσθι
οἶδα
know! realize, understand; ἴσθι ὅτι certainly


13 205 317
1569 23.1 ὅτι
ὅτι
that


68 849 1299
1570 23.1 ἀπώλεσας
ἀπόλλυμι
to lose, to ruin


6 97 90
1571 23.1 τὴν

the


502 8830 19787
1572 23.1 ἔνστασιν
ἔνστασις
in Logic, objection to an argument,; plan of life (White, Boter), life's plan (Seddon), disposition (Brennan and Brittain)


1 3
1573 23.1 ἀρκοῦ
ἀρκέω
pass. be satisified with, content


1 68 8
1574 23.1 οὖν
οὖν
therefore


40 778 489
1575 23.1 ἐν
ἐν
in


49 629 2743
1576 23.1 παντὶ
πᾶς
everything; ἐν παντὶ in every situation, in all circumstances


27 426 1226
1577 23.1 τῷ

(untranslated) + inf.

502 8830 19787
1578 23.1 εἶναι
εἰμί
to be, to be regarded


132 2174 2461
1579 23.1 φιλόσοφος
φιλόσοφος
a philosopher


11 149 1
1580 23.1 εἰ
εἰ
if


46 785 491
1581 23.1 δὲ
δέ
and


109 1649 2781
1582 23.1 καὶ
καί




206 4196 8977
1583 23.1 δοκεῖν
δοκέω
to seem


12 209 62
1584 23.1 βούλει
βούλομαι
to wish, want


11 67 36
1585 23.1 τῷ

(untranslated) + inf.

502 8830 19787
1586 23.1 εἶναι
εἰμί
to be, appear


132 2174 2461
1587 23.1 σαυτῷ
σαυτοῦ
yourself


33 213
1588 23.1 φαίνου
φαίνω
to make appear


11 110 32
1589 23.1 καὶ
καί
and


206 4196 8977
1590 23.1 ἱκανὸς
ἱκανός
capable, sufficient, able to do


3 17 40
1591 23.1 ἔσῃ
εἰμί
to be


132 2174 2461
1592 24.1 Οὗτοί
οὗτος
these


78 1657 1380
1593 24.1 σε
σύ
you


96 1336 2903
1594 24.1 οἱ

the


502 8830 19787
1595 24.1 διαλογισμοὶ
διαλογισμός
thoughts, reasoning, consideration, reflections; διαλογισμοὶ μὴ θλιβέτωσαν do not be weighed down by the consideration


1 4 14
1596 24.1 μὴ
μή
not


89 1079 1033
1597 24.1 θλιβέτωσαν
θλίβω
pass. to be weighed down, oppressed, troubled


2 13 10
1598 24.1 ἄτιμος
ἄτιμος
without honor or value, lack of honour


1 2 4
1599 24.1 ἐγὼ
ἐγώ
I


27 1241 2582
1600 24.1 βιώσομαι
βιόω
to live, to be; βιώσομαι ἄτιμος to be valued by no one


3 38 1
1601 24.1 καὶ
καί
and


206 4196 8977
1602 24.1 οὐδεὶς
οὐδείς
nobody


33 445 235
1603 24.1 οὐδαμοῦ
οὐδαμός
nowhere; οὐδεὶς οὐδαμοῦ everywhere a nobody!, no one at all


3 34
1604 24.1 εἰ
εἰ
if


46 785 491
1605 24.1 γὰρ
γάρ
for


49 781 1036
1606 24.1

(untranslated: w/ ἀτιμία


502 8830 19787
1607 24.1 ἀτιμία
ἀτιμία
lack of honor or value, lacking value


2 3 7
1608 24.1 ἐστὶ
εἰμί
to be


132 2174 2461
1609 24.1 κακόν
κακός
a bad state, bad thing


11 292 50
1610 24.1 οὐ
οὐ
not


85 1681 1626
1611 24.1 δύνασαι
δύναμαι
can, be able to + Inf.

18 313 209
1612 24.1 ἐν
ἐν
in


49 629 2743
1613 24.1 κακῷ
κακός
a bad state or situation; ; ἐν κακῷ εἶναι to be involved in anything bad


11 292 50
1614 24.1 εἶναι
εἰμί
to be


132 2174 2461
1615 24.1 δι᾽
διά
because + acc.

15 346 633
1616 24.1 ἄλλον
ἄλλος
another person, someone else, other people


32 663 155
1617 24.1 οὐ
οὐ
not


85 1681 1626
1618 24.1 μᾶλλον
μᾶλλον
οὐ μᾶλλον ἤ not any more than


6 113 81
1619 24.1

than


66 915 346
1620 24.1 ἐν
ἐν
in


49 629 2743
1621 24.1 αἰσχρῷ
αἰσχρός
a shameful state, disgraceful situation, anything disgraceful


2 60 4
1622 24.1 μή
μή
not


89 1079 1033
1623 24.1 τι
τις
any


163 3876
1624 24.1 οὖν
οὖν
therefore


40 778 489
1625 24.1 σόν
σός
your


41 281 26
1626 24.1 ἐστιν
εἰμί
to be


132 2174 2461
1627 24.1 ἔργον
ἔργον
task, business; σόν ἔργον your business


20 147 169
1628 24.1 τὸ

(untranslated: w/ ἀρχῆς)


502 8830 19787
1629 24.1 ἀρχῆς
ἀρχή
political office


4 56 56
1630 24.1 τυχεῖν
τυγχάνω
to gain; τὸ ἀρχῆς τυχεῖν to gain political office, acquire status, achieve power


14 110 12
1631 24.1

or


66 915 346
1632 24.1 παραληφθῆναι
παραλαμβάνω
pass. to be invited, be taken to


5 19 49
1633 24.1 ἐφ᾽
ἐπί
to + acc.

77 642 890
1634 24.1 ἑστίασιν
ἑστίασις
a banquet


5 6
1635 24.1 οὐδαμῶς
οὐδαμός
not at all


3 34
1636 24.1 πῶς
πῶς
how


6 358 104
1637 24.1 οὖν
οὖν
therefore


40 778 489
1638 24.1 ἔτι
ἔτι
then


6 160 94
1639 24.1 τοῦτ᾽
οὗτος
that


78 1657 1380
1640 24.1 ἔστιν
ἕστιν
to be





1641 24.1 ἀτιμία
ἀτιμία
lack of honor or value, lacking value


2 3 7
1642 24.1 πῶς
πῶς
how


6 358 104
1643 24.1 δὲ
δέ
and


109 1649 2781
1644 24.1 οὐδεὶς
οὐδείς
nobody


33 445 235
1645 24.1 οὐδαμοῦ
οὐδαμός
nowhere; οὐδεὶς οὐδαμοῦ a nobody everywhere, no one at all


3 34
1646 24.1 ἔσῃ
εἰμί
to be


132 2174 2461
1647 24.1 ὃν
ὅς
who


37 618 1404
1648 24.1 ἐν
ἐν
in


49 629 2743
1649 24.1 μόνοις
μόνος
only things


15 235 114
1650 24.1 εἶναί
εἰμί
to be


132 2174 2461
1651 24.1 τινα
τις
somebody, someone


163 3876
1652 24.1 δεῖ
δεῖ
it is necessary


19 428 103
1653 24.1 τοῖς

those


502 8830 19787
1654 24.1 ἐπὶ
ἐπί
up to; ἐπὶ σοί under your control + dat.

77 642 890
1655 24.1 σοί
σύ
you


96 1336 2903
1656 24.1 ἐν
ἐν
in, with respect to + dat.

49 629 2743
1657 24.1 οἷς
ὅς
which


37 618 1404
1658 24.1 ἔξεστί
ἔξεστι
it is open, to have the opportunity + dat + inf.

1 40
1659 24.1 σοι
σύ
you


96 1336 2903
1660 24.1 εἶναι
εἰμί
to be


132 2174 2461
1661 24.1 πλείστου
πλεῖστος
greatest


1 11
1662 24.1 ἀξίῳ
ἄξιος
worth, value; εἶναι πλείστου ἀξίῳ to be of the greatest worth


7 98 41