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Reading 08: May 11

Chapters 18.1-20.1 (Chapters 18-20)
Translations Due Sunday, May 18 (midnight CST)
Grammar Questions Due Tuesday, May 20 (midnight CST)

Reading Selections by Group
Level Book Sections Title
Questions
Perseus
Notes
Basic 1
Enchiridion
19.1
You can be unconquerable
Basic2
Enchiridion
19.2
Despise the things you cannot control
Optional 1
Enchiridion
18.1
"Every omen is favorable for me."
Optional 2
Enchiridion
20.1
Be the master of yourself  
Advanced 1
Discourses
2.7.1-14
How to use divination.
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Other Aids
Greek Sentences
Instructions for sending in translations
Audio File
An mp3 audio recording(s) using Erasmian pronunciation.
An mp3 audio recording(s) of the weekly Enchiridion reading using 'Living Koine' pronunciation: <----Instructions: Right click file name and select "save file as" for Microsoft Windows OS.
Greek Text (Pdf file of the reading)

Schenkl's 1916 Text of the weekly reading (Text used by this group and Perseus). A several page pdf file.

Diglott weekly reading with Greek text and English translation (4x6 index card size pdf file)

Diglott weekly reading Greek text, English translation and vocabulary (A 8.5 x 11 2 page pdf file.)

Notes on the Greek Text Schweighauser's 1799 Reading 08 (Schenkl's Source ) with Wolf's Latin Translation and notes. A several page pdf file, but missing p. 21. Heyne's 1756 Epicteti Enchiridium Graece et Latine with notes and Upton's Latin translation. A several page pdf file. Thurot's 1903 Reading 08 (French with Greek notes and commentary).  A several page pdf file.
Vocabulary
Vocabulary of the entire Enchiridion with frequency statistics and glosses Special vocabulary: a table of the 100+ words that Epictetus uses frequently or in a special sense.

The Progression of the Enchiridion.

Chapters 18, 19 and 20 all speak about how one is to handle impressions. In each of the chapters the phrase 'don't be taken by impressions occurs: μὴ συναρπαζέτω σε ἡ φαντασία· (18.1a),ὑπὸ τῆς φαντασίας συναρπασθείς (19.2a), and πειρῶ ὑπὸ τῆς φαντασίας μὴ συναρπασθῆναι· (20.1c). Chapter 18 talks about the impressions given by omens. Chapter 19 speaks of the impression we get about other people - how we think the lives of important or rich people - must be happy (because they are important or rich). Chapter 20 says that being offended at insults (physical or verbal) is the result of our own opinions provoking oneself (false opinions about what is important). Epictetus turns the modern day world of political correctness on its head, and as always states that contentment in life does not depend upon the acts, words, or beliefs of others: τὸ τέλος εὐδαιμωνίας ἐφ' ἧμιν.

Divination in the Ancient World

Chapter 18 starts: Κόραξ ὅταν μὴ αἴσιον κεκράγῃ.... It's hard to believe that Stoic's would be into augury, but they had no problem with it, indeed, divination was a great part of ancient religion. The Stoics firmly beleived that a single supreme intelligence (Zeus) directed the natural world. Signs, omens and portents, are the events through which the gods communicate to people. Yet this belief in the interpretation of omens came at a cost to the Stoic. Epictetus says, it led men 'to omit many duties.' (see the Advanced Reading, Discourses 2.7) In a certain sense there was some meaning in it. If it is true that those who believe in God can see certain signs in the administration of the world by which they can judge what their behaviour ought to be, they can learn what their duties are. If these signs are misunderstood, or if they are not seen right, men may be governed by an abject superstition.

A young man in Epictetus' class would be a fool to reject the signs of the gods. The Stoic, who should not be upset by the actions of others, were still subject to the diviners' interpretations. Epictetus hints that 'they are being played with' --but by whom, the μαντεῖς or ourselves?

What then leads us to frequent use of divination? Cowardice, the dread of what will happen. This is the reason why we flatter the diviners. Pray, master, shall I succeed to the property of my father? Let us see: let us sacrifice on the occasion.—Yes, master, as fortune chooses. —When he has said, You shall succeed to the inheritance, we thank him as if we received the inheritance from him. The consequence is that they play upon us. (Discourses 2.7.10ff)

You can find out more about Augury and Divination by looking at the book Greek Divination: A Study of its Methods and Principles by W. R. Halliday (1913). available on the Ancient Library. The site Ancient Divination and Astrology on the Web by Tim Spalding also has aditional links and resources.

 

Aids to Reading the Greek

The Greek of chapters 18-20 is fairly straightforward. There are terms used in special ways, e.g. ἡ οὐσία τοῦ ἀγαθοῦ ᾖ (19.2b) 'the essence of goodness'. He continues to use diminutives side-by-side with words which in other passages are in the diminutive e.g. γυναικαρίον (cf. 18.1c ἀλλ᾽ ἢ τῷ σωματίῳ μου ἢ τῷ κτησειδίῳ μου ἢ τῷ δοξαρίῳ ἢ τοῖς τέκνοις ἢ τῇ γυναικί.), making one wonder whether he uses the diminutive for a reason or merely as a stylistic variation. The topics are the same as before: money, wealth, power, impressions, envy, and verbal and physical abuse.

Special Words

The meanings of the LSJ lexicon do not always point out or fit the 'Stoic' use of terms. The following list of words which are the behavioral, ethical and philosophical terms that occur in the reading. Some of them are 'Stoic specific'; most are not. As the special vocabulary page is being built, a more complete 'special lexicon' will become available to help understand the Greek word. The Stoic Groups also has a posting of terms (the Greek is transliterated). Here are some of the brief glosses. The freqencies are for the entire Enchiridion.

   
ἀναιρέω to restrain
θάνατος death

Corrections to the Text

The Perseus text is the same as Schenkl and has no errors. Boter's alternate readings are noted below the appropriate section of the Greek text.

 

Reading 8: Chapters 18.1-20.1 (Chapters 18-20)

Reading 8 - Basic Group Enchiridion Chapter 19.1-2
Apparatus
Translation
Answers
Vocabulary

  Basic Reading 1 & 2 (Chapter 19.1 & 19.2 -the whole chapter)

Κεφάλαιον ιθʹ
[19.1a] Ἀνίκητος εἶναι δύνασαι, ἐὰν εἰς μηδένα ἀγῶνα καταβαίνῃς, ὃν οὐκ ἔστιν ἐπὶ σοὶ νικῆσαι. [19.2a] ὅρα μήποτε ἰδών τινα προτιμώμενον ἢ μέγα δυνάμενον ἢ ἄλλως εὐδοκιμοῦντα μακαρίσῃς, ὑπὸ τῆς φαντασίας συναρπασθείς. [19.2b] ἐὰν γὰρ ἐν τοῖς ἐφ᾽ ἡμῖν ἡ οὐσία τοῦ ἀγαθοῦ ᾖ, οὔτε φθόνος οὔτε ζηλοτυπία χώραν ἔχει· [19.2c] σύ τε αὐτὸς οὐ στρατηγός, οὐ πρύτανις ἢ ὕπατος εἶναι θελήσεις, ἀλλ᾽ ἐλεύθερος. [19.2d] μία δὲ ὁδὸς πρὸς τοῦτο, καταφρόνησις τῶν οὐκ ἐφ᾽ ἡμῖν.

Basic Questions

Note: If you desire to get THE answer to the question and the answers to the questions suggested by the Greekstudy members, you may either view the appropriate Greekstudy email which includes the answers, or alternately (if you missed the email) send in your answers to the question(s). I'll be glad to email you the suggested answer and the answers sent in by the Greekstudy members.

Q1. Line 19.2a τινα προτιμώμενον ἢ μέγα δυνάμενον ἢ ἄλλως εὐδοκιμοῦντα. Translate this phrase, the three participles with an explanation of the meaning of each.

Q2. Line 19.2b ὅρα μήποτε ἰδών...μακαρίσῃς. Parse ὅρα - is the final alpha long or short? How do you tranlsate this phrase? Is ὅρα...ἰδών this a play on words or a rhetorical device? What books would you look into to find the specifics of Greek rhetoric?

Q2. Line 19.2b. ἐὰν γὰρ ἐν τοῖς ἐφ᾽ ἡμῖν ἡ οὐσία τοῦ ἀγαθοῦ ᾖ. What is ἡ οὐσία τοῦ ἀγαθοῦ? What other Greek words are synonyms of this phrase. Does Epictetus use this phrase elsewhere (look at Schenkl's parallel passage index below the Greek text). To what does ἡ οὐσία refer to in the New Testament?

Q3. Line 19.2b. ζηλοτυπία. What is the best tranlsation for this word. To what category would it best fit in Loew-Nida's semantic domains? See http://www.laparola.net/greco/louwnida.php.

Q4. Line 19.2c. στρατηγός, οὐ πρύτανις ἢ ὕπατος. What is the position of authority for these words? What other postitions does Epictetus refer to in the Enchiridion. See the indexofwords. Can you find the Latin for each?

Q5. Line 19.2d μία δὲ ὁδὸς πρὸς τοῦτο. Translate this phrase. The word 'way' has lost its literal sense in English for the most part. Is ὁδὸς figurative here, or should one translate it as 'path'? How many different ways can the word ὁδὸς be translated?

Q6. Line 19.2d. καταφρόνησις. What is καταφρόνησις? Is this word used in the New Testament?

 

Reading 8 - Optional Reading Enchiridion Chapters 18.1, 20.1
Apparatus
Translation
Answers
Vocabulary

Chapter 18.1 Optional Reading 1

Κεφάλαιον ιηʹ
[18.1a] Κόραξ ὅταν μὴ αἴσιον κεκράγῃ, μὴ συναρπαζέτω σε ἡ φαντασία· [18.1b] ἀλλ᾽ εὐθὺς διαίρει παρὰ σεαυτῷ καὶ λέγε ὅτι "τούτων ἐμοὶ οὐδὲν ἐπισημαίνεται, [18.1c] ἀλλ᾽ ἢ τῷ σωματίῳ μου ἢ τῷ κτησειδίῳ μου ἢ τῷ δοξαρίῳ μου ἢ τοῖς τέκνοις ἢ τῇ γυναικί. [18.1d] ἐμοὶ δὲ πάντα αἴσια σημαίνεται, ἐὰν ἐγὼ θέλω· [18.1e] ὅ τι γὰρ ἂν τούτων ἀποβαίνῃ, ἐπ᾽ ἐμοί ἐστιν ὠφεληθῆναι ἀπ᾽ αὐτοῦ".

Chapter 20.1 Optional Reading 2

Κεφάλαιον κʹ
[20.1a] Μέμνησο, ὅτι οὐχ ὁ λοιδορῶν ἢ ὁ τύπτων ὑβρίζει, ἀλλὰ τὸ δόγμα τὸ περὶ τούτων ὡς ὑβριζόντων. [20.1b] ὅταν οὖν ἐρεθίσῃ σέ τις, ἴσθι, ὅτι ἡ σή σε ὑπόληψις ἠρέθικε. [20.1c] τοιγαροῦν ἐν πρώτοις πειρῶ ὑπὸ τῆς φαντασίας μὴ συναρπασθῆναι· [20.1d] ἂν γὰρ ἅπαξ χρόνου καὶ διατριβῆς τύχῃς, ῥᾷον κρατήσεις σεαυτοῦ.

Optional Questions

Q7. Line 18.1a αἴσιον. What word does αἴσιον come from? What is its meaning? Is it only applied to portents?

Q8. Line 18.1b ἀλλ᾽ εὐθὺς διαίρει παρὰ σεαυτῷ.... Translate this phrase. Is διαίρει from διαίρω or διαιρέω? What is the best translation for διαίρει? Is εὐθὺς logical or temporal in meaning?

Q9. Line 18.1c. ἀλλ᾽ ἢ τῷ σωματίῳ μου ἢ τῷ κτησειδίῳ μου ἢ τῷ δοξαρί. Translate this phrase. Why are the words σωματίῳ, κτησειδίῳ and δοξαρίῳ in the diminutive form? Do they have any special meaning?

Q10. Line 18.1c. ἀλλ᾽ ἢ τῷ σωματίῳ μου ἢ τῷ κτησειδίῳ μου ἢ τῷ δοξαρίῳ μου ἢ τοῖς τέκνοις ἢ τῇ γυναικί. Why are the words σωματίῳ, κτησειδίῳ,δοξαρίῳ, τέκνοις and γυναικί in the dative?

Q11. Line 18.1e. ὅ τι. Is ὅ τι any different from ὅτι? In ancient uncials (upper case letter manuscripts) and miniscules (lower case letter manuscripts) the letters were run together, side by side, with no spaces inbetween. Writing them differently is an editor's convention.

Q12. Line 20.1b. ἐρεθίσῃ. Parse ἐρεθίσῃ. What are the possible forms it could be parsed as?

Q13. Line 20.1b. ἠρέθικε. Parse this word. What sense does the tense add. Boter reads ἠρέθισε, does that change the meaning in any way?

Q14. Line 20.1c. ἐν πρώτοις. How do you translate this phrase? Why is it in the plural?

Q15. Line 20.1c πειρῶ. Parse this word. (It is from an alpha contract verb, πειράω). What would the uncontracted form be? See Smyth §385.

Q16. Line 20.1d. ἂν γὰρ ἅπαξ χρόνου καὶ διατριβῆς τύχῃς, ῥᾷον κρατήσεις σεαυτοῦ. Translate this line. Are ἅπαξ χρόνου καὶ διατριβῆς τύχῃς positive or negative things.

Q17. Line 20.1d. ἅπαξ χρόνου καὶ διατριβῆς τύχῃς. What is the structure of this phrase? What words are in the genitive and why?

Q18. Line 20.1d ῥᾷον. What are the positive, comparative and superlative forms of this adjective?

Other questions some may have:

 

Reading 8 - Advanced Reading 1 Discourses 2.7.1-14
Text
Questions
Notes
Apparatus
Answers
Vocabulary

Πῶς μαντευτέον.
Διὰ τὸ ἀκαίρως μαντεύεσθαι πολλοὶ καθήκοντα πολλὰ παραλείπομεν1. [2] τί γὰρ ὁ μάντις δύναται πλέον ἰδεῖν θανάτου ἢ κινδύνου ἢ νόσου ἢ ὅλως τῶν τοιούτων; [3] ἂν οὖν δέῃ κινδυνεῦσαι ὑπὲρ τοῦ φίλου, ἂν δὲ καὶ ἀποθανεῖν ὑπὲρ αὐτοῦ καθήκῃ, ποῦ μοι καιρὸς ἔτι μαντεύεσθαι; οὐκ ἔχω τὸν μάντιν ἔσω τὸν εἰρηκότα μοι τὴν οὐσίαν τοῦ ἀγαθοῦ καὶ τοῦ κακοῦ, τὸν ἐξηγημένον τὰ σημεῖα ἀμφοτέρων; [4] τί οὖν ἔτι χρείαν ἔχω τῶν σπλάγχνων ἢ τῶν οἰωνῶν; ἀλλ᾽ ἀνέχομαι λέγοντος ἐκείνου "συμφέρει σοι"; τί γάρ ἐστι συμφέρον οἶδεν; [5] τί ἐστιν ἀγαθὸν οἶδεν; μεμάθηκεν ὥσπερ τὰ σημεῖα τῶν σπλάγχνων οὕτως σημεῖα τίνα ἀγαθῶν καὶ κακῶν; εἰ γὰρ τούτων οἶδεν σημεῖα, καὶ καλῶν καὶ αἰσχρῶν οἶδεν καὶ δικαίων καὶ ἀδίκων. [6] ἄνθρωπε, σύ μοι λέγε τί σημαίνεται, ζωὴ ἢ θάνατος, πενία ἢ πλοῦτος: πότερον δὲ συμφέρει ταῦτα ἢ ἀσύμφορά ἐστιν, σοῦ μέλλω πυνθάνεσθαι; [7] διὰ τί ἐν γραμματικοῖς οὐ λέγεις; ἐνθάδ᾽ οὖν, ὅπου πάντες ἄνθρωποι πλανώμεθα καὶ πρὸς ἀλλήλους μαχόμεθα; [8] διὰ τοῦτο ἡ γυνὴ καλῶς εἶπεν ἡ πέμψαι θέλουσα τῇ Γρατίλλῃ ἐξωρισμένῃ τὸ πλοῖον τῶν ἐπιμηνίων κατὰ τὸν εἰπόντα ὅτι "Ἀφαιρήσεται αὐτὰ Δομιτιανὸς" "Μᾶλλον θέλω", φησίν, "ἵν᾽ ἐκεῖνος αὐτὰ ἀφέληται ἢ ἵν᾽ ἐγὼ μὴ πέμψω".

Τί οὖν ἡμᾶς ἐπὶ τὸ οὕτω συνεχῶς μαντεύεσθαι ἄγει; [9] ἡ δειλία, τὸ φοβεῖσθαι τὰς ἐκβάσεις. διὰ τοῦτο κολακεύομεν τοὺς μάντεις: "κληρονομήσω, κύριε, τὸν πατέρα;" "ἴδωμεν: ἐπεκθυσώμεθα." "ναί, κύριε, ὡς ἡ τύχη θέλει." εἶτ᾽ ἂν εἴπῃ "κληρονομήσεις", ὡς παρ᾽ αὐτοῦ τὴν κληρονομίαν εἰληφότες εὐχαριστοῦμεν αὐτῷ. διὰ τοῦτο κἀκεῖνοι λοιπὸν ἐμπαίζουσιν ἡμῖν4.

[10] τί οὖν; δεῖ δίχα ὀρέξεως ἔρχεσθαι καὶ ἐκκλίσεως, ὡς ὁ ὁδοιπόρος πυνθάνεται παρὰ τοῦ ἀπαντήσαντος, ποτέρα[ν] τῶν ὁδῶν φέρει, οὐκ ἔχων ὄρεξιν πρὸς τὸ τὴν δεξιὰν μᾶλλον φέρειν ἢ τὴν ἀριστεράν: οὐ γὰρ τούτων τινὰ ἀπελθεῖν θέλει, ἀλλὰ τὴν φέρουσαν. [11] οὕτως ἔδει καὶ ἐπὶ τὸν θεὸν ἔρχεσθαι ὡς ὁδηγόν, ὡς τοῖς ὀφθαλμοῖς χρώμεθα, οὐ παρακαλοῦντες αὐτοὺς ἵνα τὰ τοιαῦτα μᾶλλον ἡμῖν δεικνύωσιν, ἀλλ᾽ οἷα ἐνδείκνυνται τούτων τὰς φαντασίας δεχόμενοι. [12] νῦν δὲ τρέμοντες τὸ ὀρνιθάριον κρατοῦμεν καὶ τὸν θεὸν ἐπικαλούμενοι δεόμεθα αὐτοῦ: " [13] 3κύριε, ἐλέησον: ἐπίτρεψόν μοι ἐξελθεῖν". ἀνδράποδον, ἄλλο γάρ τι θέλεις ἢ τὸ ἄμεινον; ἄλλο οὖν τι ἄμεινον ἢ τὸ τῷ θεῷ δοκοῦν; [14] τί τὸ ὅσον ἐπὶ σοὶ διαφθείρεις τὸν κριτήν, παράγεις τὸν σύμβουλον;

Translation by George Long (1890)

How we ought to use divination.

THROUGH an unreasonable regard to divination many of us omit many duties.1 For what more can the diviner see than death or danger or disease, or generally things of that kind? If then I must expose myself to danger for a friend, and if it is my duty even to die for him, what need have I then for divination? Have I not within me a diviner who has told me the nature of good and of evil, and has explained to me the signs (or marks) of both? What need have I then to consult the viscera of victims or the flight of birds, and why do I submit when he says, It is for your interest? For does he know what is for my interest, does he know what is good; and as he has learned the signs of the viscera, has he also learned the signs of good and evil? For if he knows the signs of these, he knows the signs both of the beautiful and of the ugly, and of the just and of the unjust. Do you tell me, man, what is the thing which is signified for me: is it life or death, poverty or wealth? But whether these things are for my interest or whether they are not, I do not intend to ask you. Why don't you give your opinion on matters of grammar, and why do you give it here about things on which we are all in error and disputing with one another?2 The woman therefore, who intended to send by a vessel a month's provisions to Gratilla3 in her banishment, made a good answer to him who said that Domitian would seize what she sent, I would rather, she replied, that Domitian should seize all than that I should not send it.

What then leads us to frequent use of divination? Cowardice, the dread of what will happen. This is the reason why we flatter the diviners. Pray, master, shall I succeed to the property of my father? Let us see: let us sacrifice on the occasion.—Yes, master, as fortune chooses. —When he has said, You shall succeed to the inheritance, we thank him as if we received the inheritance from him. The consequence is that they play upon us.4

What then should we do? We ought to come (to divination) without desire or aversion, as the wayfarer asks of the man whom he meets which of two roads leads (to his journey's end), without any desire for that which leads to the right rather than to the left, for he has no wish to go by any road except the road which leads (to his end). In the same way ought we to come to God also as a guide; as we use our eyes, not asking them to show us rather such things as we wish, but receiving the appearances of things such as the eyes present them to us. But now we trembling take the augur (bird interpreter)5 by the hand, and while we invoke God we intreat the augur, and say Master have mercy on me;6 suffer me to come safe out of this difficulty. Wretch, would you have then any thing other than what is best? Is there then any thing better than what pleases God? Why do you, as far as is in your power, corrupt your judge and lead astray your adviser?

 

Collected Notes on the text.

The order of the notes may be out of order in relation to the text. Notes will be added in the future.

Section 18.1 Notes click to expand    []

18.1a κεκράγῃ. White p. 16.n9. Most people in antiquity believed in fortune-telling of various kinds, involving bird-calls, the flight of birds, inspection of entrails, stars, and whatnot. Many Stoics, notably Chrysippus, believed in such things, not least because they saw in them manifestations of the order of the cosmos and the tight and intricate inter- connections within it, and thus saw them as scientific rather than superstitious.

 

Section 19.1 Notes click to expand    []

 

 

Section 19.2 Notes click to expand    []

 

Section 20.1 Notes click to expand    []

 

Advanced Reading Discourses 2.7 Notes click to expand    []

1 Divination was a great part of antient religion, and, as Epictetus says, it led men 'to omit many duties.' In a certain sense there was some meaning in it. If it is true that those who believe in God can see certain signs in the administration of the world by which they can judge what their behaviour ought to be, they can learn what their duties are. If these signs are misunderstood, or if they are not seen right, men may be governed by an abject superstition. So the external forms of any religion may become the means of corruption and of human debasement, and the true indications of God's will may be neglected. Upton compares Lucan (ix. 572), who sometimes said a few good things. (Long note 1)

2 A man who gives his opinion on grammar gives an opinion on a thing of which many know something. A man who gives his opinion on divination or on future events, gives an opinion on things of which we all know nothing. When then a man affects to instruct on things unknown, we may ask him to give his opinion on things which are known, and so we may learn what kind of man he is. (Long note 2)

3 Gratilla was a lady of rank, who was banished from Rome and Italy by Domitian. Pliny, Epp. iii. 11. See the note in Schweig.'s ed. on ἐπιμήνια. (Long note 3)

1 A lady of high rank at Rome, banished from Italy, among many noble persons, by Domitian. - C. (Higginson note 1)

4 As knavish priests have often played on the fears and hopes of the superstitious. (Long note 4)

5 Schweighaeuser reads τὸν ὀρνιθάριον. See his note. (Long note 5)

6 '“Κύριε ἐλέησον, Domine miserere. Notissima formula in Christiana ecclesia jam usque a primis temporibus usurpata”' Upton. (Long note 6).

 

 

Sentences numbered for sending in the translations

Reading 8: Chapters 18.1-20.1


Optional Reading 1
[1801a] Κόραξ ὅταν μὴ αἴσιον κεκράγῃ, μὴ συναρπαζέτω σε ἡ φαντασία·
[1801b] ἀλλ᾽ εὐθὺς διαίρει παρὰ σεαυτῷ καὶ λέγε ὅτι "τούτων ἐμοὶ οὐδὲν ἐπισημαίνεται,
[1801c] ἀλλ᾽ ἢ τῷ σωματίῳ μου ἢ τῷ κτησειδίῳ μου ἢ τῷ δοξαρίῳ μου ἢ τοῖς τέκνοις ἢ τῇ γυναικί.
[1801d] ἐμοὶ δὲ πάντα αἴσια σημαίνεται, ἐὰν ἐγὼ θέλω·
[1801e] ὅ τι γὰρ ἂν τούτων ἀποβαίνῃ, ἐπ᾽ ἐμοί ἐστιν ὠφεληθῆναι ἀπ᾽ αὐτοῦ".

Basic Reading
[1901a] Ἀνίκητος εἶναι δύνασαι, ἐὰν εἰς μηδένα ἀγῶνα καταβαίνῃς, ὃν οὐκ ἔστιν ἐπὶ σοὶ νικῆσαι.
[1902a] ὅρα μήποτε ἰδών τινα προτιμώμενον ἢ μέγα δυνάμενον ἢ ἄλλως εὐδοκιμοῦντα μακαρίσῃς, ὑπὸ τῆς φαντασίας συναρπασθείς.
[1902b] ἐὰν γὰρ ἐν τοῖς ἐφ᾽ ἡμῖν ἡ οὐσία τοῦ ἀγαθοῦ ᾖ, οὔτε φθόνος οὔτε ζηλοτυπία χώραν ἔχει·
[1902c] σύ τε αὐτὸς οὐ στρατηγός, οὐ πρύτανις ἢ ὕπατος εἶναι θελήσεις, ἀλλ᾽ ἐλεύθερος.
[1902d] μία δὲ ὁδὸς πρὸς τοῦτο, καταφρόνησις τῶν οὐκ ἐφ᾽ ἡμῖν.

Optional Reading 2
[2001a] Μέμνησο, ὅτι οὐχ ὁ λοιδορῶν ἢ ὁ τύπτων ὑβρίζει, ἀλλὰ τὸ δόγμα τὸ περὶ τούτων ὡς ὑβριζόντων.
[2001b] ὅταν οὖν ἐρεθίσῃ σέ τις, ἴσθι, ὅτι ἡ σή σε ὑπόληψις ἠρέθικε.
[2001c] τοιγαροῦν ἐν πρώτοις πειρῶ ὑπὸ τῆς φαντασίας μὴ συναρπασθῆναι·
[2001d] ἂν γὰρ ἅπαξ χρόνου καὶ διατριβῆς τύχῃς, ῥᾷον κρατήσεις σεαυτοῦ.

 

 

Table of Words

The local gloss is context-specific. The word-link and lemma-link are linked to the Perseus Hopper vocabulary tool. I have gone through the Greek lemma and verified them for accuracy - but there may still be some errors. Many of the definitions have been taken from the following translations: Mattheson, Boter, White, Oldfather and Long. If you have a better suggestion for a word, send in the word number, Greek word and suggested gloss, and I will add it into the vocabulary list.

A note of caution: Perseus does not always work as expected. The links are betacode which works better than sending in Greek Unicode lookups. But sometimes it still will not work. In addition, Perseus is often slow - if you see it cranking and cranking, try later, the server is too busy. An example of unexpected results is as follows: the neuter plural form ἀπαραπόδιστα returns 'not found'; the root lemma ἀπαραπόδιστος brings up its own correct entry. Some words are only listed in the Middle LSJ, not the main LSJ (e.g. οὐδέπω). So if you look up οὐδέπω in the Archimedes Harvard LSJ or your own personal copy, you won't find it.

The columns for vocabulary frequency are compiled from Perseus' Max frequency for the Enchiridion (EnchX) and all of Epictetus' works (EpicX including the Enchiridion). The New Testament frequencies are from Tischendorf's NT as provided by MorphGnt.org. Words are linked on betacode, but some lemmas do not link correctly (a problem that will be fixed over time), thus there are occasionally NTX freqencies that are missing or partial. When comparing the frequency of the various works, you should remember the Enchiridion (4983 words) is about the same length as the book of Hebrews (4953 words) and all Epictetus' writings (The Discourses - 75,177 words, Fragments - 4023 words,and Enchiridion - 4983 words; grand total - 84183) are 60% of the length of the New Testament (138,019 words). Although both the Epictus' works and the New Testament books are different in content and author, if you multiply the Epictetus frequency by 1.6 (EpicX x 1.6) you can come up with a comparable usage between the two works.

 

qryEnchiridionWords_ReadingsLemma
WordID Reference WordLink LemmaLink LocalGloss Construction POS Parsing EnchX EpicX NTX
1279 18.1 Κόραξ
κόραξ
a crow, raven





1280 18.1 ὅταν
ὅταν
whenever, when


31 266 123
1281 18.1 μὴ
μή
not


89 1079 1033
1282 18.1 αἴσιον
αἴσος
μὴ αἴσιον unfavorably, inauspiciously





1283 18.1 κεκράγῃ
κράζω
to croak; μὴ αἴσιον κεκράγῃ to give an unfavorable sign by croaking


1 7 55
1284 18.1 μὴ
μή
not


89 1079 1033
1285 18.1 συναρπαζέτω
συναρπάζω
to be carried away


6 9 4
1286 18.1 σε
σύ
you


96 1336 2903
1287 18.1

the


502 8830 19787
1288 18.1 φαντασία
φαντασία
impression, appearance


11 118 1
1289 18.1 ἀλλ᾽
ἀλλά
but


55 953 635
1290 18.1 εὐθὺς
εὐθύς
immediately, straitaway


8 68 8
1291 18.1 διαίρει
διαιρέω
to draw a distinction


2 8 2
1292 18.1 παρὰ
παρά
in


10 162 191
1293 18.1 σεαυτῷ
σεαυτοῦ
yourself; παρὰ σεαυτῷ to yourself, in your mind





1294 18.1 καὶ
καί
and


206 4196 8977
1295 18.1 λέγε
λέγω
to say


19 600 2258
1296 18.1 ὅτι
ὅτι
(untranslated)


68 849 1299
1297 18.1 τούτων
οὗτος
these (signs)


78 1657 1380
1298 18.1 ἐμοὶ
ἐγώ
me ; with respect to me


54 1268 2582
1299 18.1 οὐδὲν
οὐδείς
none


33 445 235
1300 18.1 ἐπισημαίνεται
ἐπισημαίνω
to signify, pertain to, to be (intended) for


1 1
1301 18.1 ἀλλ᾽
ἀλλά
but


55 953 635
1302 18.1

or ἢ...ἢ

66 915 346
1303 18.1 τῷ

(untranslated: w/ σωματίῳ)


502 8830 19787
1304 18.1 σωματίῳ
σωμάτιον
body, petty body


1 49
1305 18.1 μου
ἐγώ
my


54 1268 2582
1306 18.1

or ἢ...ἢ

66 915 346
1307 18.1 τῷ

(untranslated: w/κτησειδίῳ)


502 8830 19787
1308 18.1 κτησειδίῳ
κτησείδιον
property, petty property, possessions


1 4
1309 18.1 μου
ἐγώ
my


54 1268 2582
1310 18.1

or ἢ...ἢ

66 915 346
1311 18.1 τῷ

(untranslated: w/ δοξαρίῳ)


502 8830 19787
1312 18.1 δοξαρίῳ
δοξάριον
reputation, petty judgments


1 5
1313 18.1 μου
ἐγώ
my


54 1268 2582
1314 18.1

or ἢ...ἢ

66 915 346
1315 18.1 τοῖς

(untranslated: w/ τέκνοις)


502 8830 19787
1316 18.1 τέκνοις
τέκνον
child; pl. children


6 38 99
1317 18.1

or ἢ...ἢ

66 915 346
1318 18.1 τῇ

(untranslated: w/ γυναικί.)


502 8830 19787
1319 18.1 γυναικί
γυνή
wife


8 76 219
1320 18.1 ἐμοὶ
ἐγώ
my


54 1268 2582
1321 18.1 δὲ
δέ
but, for


109 1649 2781
1322 18.1 πάντα
πᾶς
all


27 426 1226
1323 18.1 αἴσια
αἴσιος
a favorable/auspicious portent


2 2
1324 18.1 σημαίνεται
σημαίνω
πάντα αἴσια σημαίνεται all portents/signs are favourable


2 23 6
1325 18.1 ἐὰν
ἐάν
if


85 817 333
1326 18.1 ἐγὼ
ἐγώ
I


54 1268 2582
1327 18.1 θέλω
ἐθέλω
to wish


33 484
1328 18.1
ὅς
which


37 618 1404
1329 18.1 τι
τις
ὅ τι ἂν whichever


163 3876
1330 18.1 γὰρ
γάρ
for, since


49 781 1036
1331 18.1 ἂν
ἄν

+ subj. ἀποβαίνῃ

48 730 165
1332 18.1 τούτων
οὗτος
this, the affair


78 1657 1380
1333 18.1 ἀποβαίνῃ
ἀποβαίνω
to happen, to turn out to be correct


3 18 4
1334 18.1 ἐπ᾽
ἐπί
under the control of, up to; ἐπ᾽ ἐμοί up to me, in my power + dat.

77 642 890
1335 18.1 ἐμοί
ἐγώ
I


54 1268 2582
1336 18.1 ἐστιν
εἰμί
to be + inf.

132 2174 2461
1337 18.1 ὠφεληθῆναι
ὠφελέω
to benefit; pass. to derive benefit from


3 66 15
1338 18.1 ἀπ᾽
ἀπό
from


14 166 640
1339 18.1 αὐτοῦ
αὐτός
it, them


80 1357 5568
1340 19.1 Ἀνίκητος
ἀνίκητος
invincible


1 4
1341 19.1 εἶναι
εἰμί
to be


132 2174 2461
1342 19.1 δύνασαι
δύναμαι
can + inf.

18 313 209
1343 19.1 ἐὰν
ἐάν
if


85 817 333
1344 19.1 εἰς
εἰς
into


65 935 1769
1345 19.1 μηδένα
μηδείς
not any


10 133 92
1346 19.1 ἀγῶνα
ἀγών
contest


3 17 6
1347 19.2 καταβαίνῃς
καταβαίνω
καταβαίνῃς ἀγῶνα to enter a contest


1 6 79
1348 19.2 ὃν
ὅς
which


37 618 1404
1349 19.2 οὐκ
οὐ
not


85 1681 1626
1350 19.2 ἔστιν
εἰμί
to be


132 2174 2461
1351 19.2 ἐπὶ
ἐπί
under the contol of; ἐπὶ σοὶ up to you + dat. + inf.

77 642 890
1352 19.2 σοὶ
σῦ
you





1353 19.2 νικῆσαι
νικάω
to win; ἐπὶ σοὶ νικῆσαι victory is under your control


7 46 28
1354 19.2 ὅρα
ὁράω
ὅρα ἰδών see to it, beware that


5 143 683
1355 19.2 μήποτε
μήποτε
never, lest + subj.

2 7 25
1356 19.2 ἰδών
εἶδον
to see, to think


5 129
1357 19.2 τινα
τις
someone


163 3876
1358 19.2 προτιμώμενον
προτιμάω
to be preferred in honour above/ahead of someone else


2 6
1359 19.2

or


66 915 346
1360 19.2 μέγα
μέγας
great


7 169 244
1361 19.2 δυνάμενον
δύναμαι
μέγα δυνάμενον in possession of great power, very powerful


18 313 209
1362 19.2

or


66 915 346
1363 19.2 ἄλλως
ἄλλος
otherwise


32 663 155
1364 19.2 εὐδοκιμοῦντα
εὐδοκιμέω
to enjoy/have a good reputation, to be highly esteemed


1 4
1365 19.2 μακαρίσῃς
μακαρίζω
to think or deem one happy + part.

1 3 2
1366 19.2 ὑπὸ
ὑπό
by


11 202 221
1367 19.2 τῆς

(untranslated: w/ φαντασίας)


502 8830 19787
1368 19.2 φαντασίας
φαντασία
impression, appearance


11 118 1
1369 19.2 συναρπασθείς
συναρπαζω
to be carried away





1370 19.2 ἐὰν
ἐάν
if


85 817 333
1371 19.2 γὰρ
γάρ
for


49 781 1036
1372 19.2 ἐν
ἐν
in


49 629 2743
1373 19.2 τοῖς

this


502 8830 19787
1374 19.2 ἐφ᾽
ἐπί
under the control of + dat.

77 642 890
1375 19.2 ἡμῖν
ἡμεῖς
us





1376 19.2

or


502 8830 19787
1377 19.2 οὐσία
οὐσία
essence; ἡ οὐσία τοῦ ἀγαθοῦ the essence of goodness (Boter, Seddon)


2 41 2
1378 19.2 τοῦ

(untranslated: w/ ἀγαθοῦ)


502 8830 19787
1379 19.2 ἀγαθοῦ
ἀγαθός
goodness; ἡ οὐσία τοῦ ἀγαθοῦ the really good things (White)


13 272 102
1380 19.2
εἰμί
to be


132 2174 2461
1381 19.2 οὔτε
οὔτε
neither οὔτε...οὔτε

10 207 94
1382 19.2 φθόνος
φθόνος
envy


1 12 9
1383 19.2 οὔτε
οὔτε
nor οὔτε...οὔτε

10 207 94
1384 19.2 ζηλοτυπία
ζηλοτυπία
jealousy


1 3
1385 19.2 χώραν
χώρα
a place; οὔτε χώραν ἔχει it is wrong, has no place


3 28 28
1386 19.2 ἔχει
ἔχω
to have


37 732 707
1387 19.2 σύ
σύ
you


96 1336 2903
1388 19.2 τε
τε
and


13 132
1389 19.2 αὐτὸς
αὐτός
σύ αὐτὸς your yourself


80 1357 5568
1390 19.2 οὐ
οὐ
not


85 1681 1626
1391 19.2 στρατηγός
στρατηγός
a general, praetor


2 17 10
1392 19.2 οὐ
οὐ
nor


85 1681 1626
1393 19.2 πρύτανις
πρύτανις
a magistrate, senator


1 1
1394 19.2

nor


66 915 346
1395 19.2 ὕπατος
ὕπατος
consul


1 6
1396 19.2 εἶναι
εἰμί
to be


132 2174 2461
1397 19.2 θελήσεις
ἐθέλω
to want


33 484
1398 19.2 ἀλλ᾽
ἀλλά
but


55 953 635
1399 19.2 ἐλεύθερος
ἐλεύθερος
free


4 97 23
1400 19.2 μία
εἷς
one


7 89 336
1401 19.2 δὲ
δέ
but


109 1649 2781
1402 19.2 ὁδὸς
ὁδός
road, way; ὁδὸς πρὸς τοῦτο road (that leads) to this


3 22 101
1403 19.2 πρὸς
πρός
to; πρὸς τοῦτο to this end


45 649 697
1404 19.2 τοῦτο
οὗτος
this


78 1657 1380
1405 19.2 καταφρόνησις
καταπρόνησις
despising (something), to have no concern for + gen.




1406 19.2 τῶν

pl.: things


502 8830 19787
1407 19.2 οὐκ
οὐ
not


85 1681 1626
1408 19.2 ἐφ᾽
ἐπί
under the control of; οὐκ ἐφ᾽ ἡμῖν not under our control or power


77 642 890
1409 19.2 ἡμῖν
ἡμεῖς
our





1410 20.1 Μέμνησο
μιμνήσκω
remember


20 84
1411 20.1 ὅτι
ὅτι
that


68 849 1299
1412 20.1 οὐχ
οὐ
not


85 1681 1626
1413 20.1

the + part.

502 8830 19787
1414 20.1 λοιδορῶν
λοιδορέω
to abuse; ὁ λοιδορῶν a person who abuses


8 42 4
1415 20.1

or


66 915 346
1416 20.1

the + part.

502 8830 19787
1417 20.1 τύπτων
τύπτω
to hit; ὁ τύπτων a person who hits


1 7 13
1418 20.1 ὑβρίζει
ὑβρίζω
to insult


2 8 5
1419 20.1 ἀλλὰ
ἀλλά
but


55 953 635
1420 20.1 τὸ

the


502 8830 19787
1421 20.1 δόγμα
δόγμα
τὸ δόγμα your opinion, judgement + ὡς + part.

6 132 5
1422 20.1 τὸ

the


502 8830 19787
1423 20.1 περὶ
περί
of


30 421 335
1424 20.1 τούτων
οὗτος
these men, such people


78 1657 1380
1425 20.1 ὡς
ὡς
how, that + part.

40 555 502
1426 20.1 ὑβριζόντων
ὑβρίζω
ὡς ὑβριζόντων that they are insulting you


2 8 5
1427 20.1 ὅταν
ὅταν
when


31 266 123
1428 20.1 οὖν
οὖν
therefore


40 778 489
1429 20.1 ἐρεθίσῃ
ἐρεθίζω
to irritate, provoke


2 9 2
1430 20.1 σέ
σύ
you


96 1336 2903
1431 20.1 τις
τις
someone


163 3876
1432 20.1 ἴσθι
οἶδα
recognize, be aware


13 205 317
1433 20.1 ὅτι
ὅτι
that


68 849 1299
1434 20.1

(untranslated: w/ ὑπόληψις)


502 8830 19787
1435 20.1 σή
σός
your


41 281 26
1436 20.1 σε
σύ
you


96 1336 2903
1437 20.1 ὑπόληψις
ὑπόληψις
a conception, belief, opinion; ἡ σή ὑπόληψις your own belief


3 11
1438 20.1 ἠρέθικε
ἐρεθίζω
to irritate, provoke


2 9 2
1439 20.1 τοιγαροῦν
τοιγαροῦν
and so





1440 20.1 ἐν
ἐν
in


49 629 2743
1441 20.1 πρώτοις
πρότος
first; ἐν πρώτοις in the first place, most importantly





1442 20.1 πειρῶ
πειράω
to try


1 26
1443 20.1 ὑπὸ
ὑπό
by


11 202 221
1444 20.1 τῆς

(untranslated: w/ φαντασίας)


502 8830 19787
1445 20.1 φαντασίας
φαντασία
an impression, appearance


11 118 1
1446 20.1 μὴ
μή
not


89 1079 1033
1447 20.1 συναρπασθῆναι
συναρπάζω
to carry away


6 9 4
1448 20.1 ἂν
ἄν
if + subj. τύχῃς

48 730 165
1449 20.1 γὰρ
γάρ
for, since


49 781 1036
1450 20.1 ἅπαξ
ἅπαξ
once


2 17 14
1451 20.1 χρόνου
χρόνος
time


3 36 54
1452 20.1 καὶ
καί
and


206 4196 8977
1453 20.1 διατριβῆς
διατριβή
delay


1 9
1454 20.1 τύχῃς
τυγχάνω
to gain


14 110 12
1455 20.1 ῥᾷον
ῥῥδιος
more easily





1456 20.1 κρατήσεις
κρατέω
to become master of, to control


1 16 47
1457 20.1 σεαυτοῦ
σεαυτοῦ
yourself