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Reading 04: April 14

Chapters 6.1-9.1
Translations Due Sunday, April 20 (midnight CST)
Grammar Questions Due Tuesday, April 22 (midnight CST)

Reading Selections by Group
Level Book Sections Title
Questions
Perseus
Notes
Basic 1
Enchiridion Don't Seek to Change Things
Basic 2
Enchiridion What is an impediment?
Optional 1
Enchiridion
The Proper Use of Impressions
Optional 2
Enchiridion Stay Near the Ship - Be Ready!
Advanced 1
Simplicius

13

Keep your Eye on the Captain
NA
NA
NA

 

Other Aids
Greek Sentences
Instructions for sending in translations
Audio File
An mp3 audio recording(s) using Erasmian pronunciation. 6.1  7.1  8.1   9.1
An mp3 audio recording(s) of the weekly Enchiridion reading using 'Living Koine' pronunciation: <----Instructions: Right click file name and select "save file as" for Microsoft Windows OS.
Greek Text (Pdf file of the reading)

Schenkl's 1916 Text of the weekly reading (Text used by this group and Perseus). A several page pdf file.

Diglott weekly reading with Greek text and Mattheson English translation (4x6 index card size pdf file)

Diglott weekly reading Greek text, English translation and vocabulary (A 8.5 x 11 2 page pdf file.)

Notes on the Greek Text Schweighauser's 1799 Reading 04 (Schenkl's Source ) with Wolf's Latin Translation and notes. A several page pdf file. Heyne's 1756 Epicteti Enchiridium Graece et Latine Reading 04 with notes and Upton's Latin translation. A several page pdf file. Thurot's 1903 Reading 04 (French with Greek notes and commentary).  A several page pdf file.
Vocabulary
Vocabulary of the entire Enchiridion with frequency statistics and glosses Special vocabulary: a table of the 100+ words that Epictetus uses frequently or in a special sense.

A Summary of Chapters 6-9

The Proper Use of Impressions (Chapter 6)

Chapter 6 talks about 'the proper use of impressions.' Things happen to people that they do not rightly evaluate. Epictetus puts words into a horse's mouth (which is quite humorous in itself). The point that is made is that one should not boast in possessions (over which has no control). There may well be some things that are valid to boast about. We need to look at more than the appearance of things -- some appearances may lead us to false beliefs.

Stay Near the Ship - Be Ready! (Chapter 7)

This story is the only instance of a parable or allegory that Epictetus uses in any of his extant writings. I think it is one of my favorite passages in the Enchiridion. The traveller is the student (or you or me). The Captain of the ship is Zeus (or God). This passage is similar to the passage of Simplicius 33.40 which talks about God being the pilot of the universe; Simplicius 13 (parts of his commentary on Enchiridion Chapter 7; also see 33:40) is the advanced reading for this week's reading. The point of the parable is to tell the person what they need to do in life, what to do with their posessions and how to act toward the pilot of the ship (i.e. God). While we are still here on earth, we should enjoy 'the great festival that is the world that God has made. (Discourses 1.9.16; 3.13.14; 3.26.28-31; 4.1.103-108). (Seddon p. 57).

Reading 11 of the LetsReadGreek Aesop Summer Reading group has fables about a shipwrecks.

Don't Seek to Change Things (Chapter 8)

This one sentence chapter seems to sum up Epictetus 'theory of action.' Seddon (p. 58) says that this is the single time that Epictetus refers to a saying by Zeno (one of the fathers of Stoicism). Epictetus "refers specifically to Zeno's definition of happiness as the end or goal of human life being εὐρυοία βίου 'good flow of life' (Stobeus 2.67e). One's good flow of life is realized by living in accordance with nature....Epictetus refers to <cosmic nature vs. human nature> in chapter 8."

What is an impediment? (Chapter 9)

Perhaps one of the greatest things that stops people from accomplishing things in their lives, is how they think about things that happen to them. There is a famous story about Epictetus (who was a cripple). Common rumor had it that he became lame when an abusive master was twisting his leg as punishment for some deed. The story goes that Epictetus calmy said 'If you twist it further, it will break." When it broke, Epictetus calmy replied, "See, I told you so." Most introductory books on Epictetus include a blurb or more on this story - it goes way back to the 2nd century A.D. Take a look at one of the online introductions you can find on the bibliography page, the Loeb volume 1 by Oldfather (with many notes) and Rolleston include the account.

 

Techniques of Epictetus' Style

Use of the suffix -ιον and ιδιον

Epictetus uses many words ending in either -ιον, ιδιον or -αριον. One is first tempted to translate them all as 'little' or 'small' e.g. little child, small shellfish, etc. Sometimes these endings have the added note of endearment e.g. γυναικάριον γυνή. Sometimes diminuative endings are used for contempt. Epictetus uses these endings so often that they often lose the diminuative, endearing or derisive connotations (see Smyth §852ff). Keep your eye open for these words in the readings; listing them will be one of the questions.

Blass DeBrunner p. 60 §111(3) says Diminutives are not frequent in the NT because they are not suited to a language even slightly elevated .... Diminutives end in -ισκο-, -ίς, -ιον, -αριον. The suffixes are mainly -ιον and -αριον. There is a statistical increase of diminutives in Koine; the NT has more diminutives than comparable temporary texts. Koine also has a preference for -ιον with non-diminutives from compounds.

Robertson (pp. 155-156) says 'Diminuatives are...common...in the Byzantine and Modern Greek...losing often their force'. He lists many examples.

 

Substantival (Noun) use of ajectives without an article

Another feature that Epictetus likes to use is to use adjectives or participles (without the article) as nouns. My personal feeling is that he uses it more this way than other authors I have read. The substantival use of adjectives is nothing new in Greek. If you are looking for a noun in a lexicon and cannot find it, try looking under an adjective heading for that word. Deciding whether an substantival adjective should have its own separate noun entry in a lexicon (especially LSJ) is about as hard as predicting why an article is used in front of some Greek words and not in front of others.

There were several examples of this 'non-articular substantival' usage in the last reading and more to be seen. Greek textbooks often include a corresponding noun - but it's not needed so why add it?

[5.1] ἀπαιδεύτου (an uneducated person) ἔργον τὸ ἄλλοις ἐγκαλεῖν, ἐφ᾽ οἷς αὐτὸς πράσσει κακῶς: ἠργμένου (a person who is beginning) παιδεύεσθαι τὸ ἑαυτῷ: πεπαιδευμένου (a person who has been instructed) τὸ μήτε ἄλλῳ μήτε ἑαυτῷ.

[10.1] ἐὰν καλὸν ἴδῃς ἢ καλήν 'If you see a handsome youth or pretty girl.

 

 

Aids to Reading the Greek

Special Words

The meanings of the LSJ lexicon do not always point out or fit the 'Stoic' use of terms. I have departed from the Seddon's list of 'key' terms for this chapter, because they included words like 'wife' and 'child'. I have included any words which relate to ethics, choices, thinking and actions of people. Some of the terms are 'Stoic specific'; most are not. As the special vocabulary page is being built, a fuller 'special lexicon' will become available to help understand the Greek word. Here are some of the brief glosses. A table of words (with links to Perseus and the correct lemma for each form) is listed at the bottom of this page if you have further questions about vocabulary.

   
ἀγαθός - good
ἀπαλλάσσω - to wander off, go away
ἀφίημι - to leave behind, let go of
διάνοια, ἡ - attention, mind
ἐμπίπτω- to fall into
ἐμπόδιον, τό - an impediment
ἔπαιρω - to lift up, excite; pass. to swell up, be elated
ἐπιστρέφω - to turn about
εὐροέω - to prosper (lit. have good flow)
ζητέω - to seek
θέλω - to wish, want

καλός - good, noble, excellent
κυβερνήτης ὁ - the captain (one who guides the rudder)
νόσος - disease, illness
οἰστός - bearable, endurable
προαίρεσις - choice, moral character
προτέρημα - excellence, superiority
τὰ γινόμενα - things that happen, events
τάσσω - to post as a guard, do one's duty
χρῆσις φαντασιῶν - use of impressions

Corrections to the Text

The Perseus text and the Schenkl text have an error on word 615 where a δ is incorrectly printed as a θ. The both show the word ὕθρευσθαι instead of the correct ὕδρευσθαι (per Oldfather and Boter). The correct lemma is ὑδρεύω 'to get (fresh) water'.

 

Reading 4: Chapters 6.1-9.1

Note: The readings are out of order. The Basic reading is chapters 8 & 9. The Optional reading is chapters 6 & 7.

Reading 4 - Basic Group (Readings 1 & 2) Enchiridion Chapter 8.1-9.1
Apparatus
Translation
Answers
Vocabulary

    Κεφάλαιον ηʹ (Basic Reading 1)


[8.1a] Μὴ ζήτει τὰ γινόμενα γίνεσθαι ὡς θέλεις, ἀλλὰ θέλε τὰ γινόμενα ὡς γίνεται καὶ εὐροήσεις.

Κεφάλαιον θʹ (Basic Reading 2)

[9.1a] Νόσος σώματός ἐστιν ἐμπόδιον, προαιρέσεως δὲ οὔ, ἐὰν μὴ αὐτὴ θέλῃ. [9.1b] χώλανσις* σκέλους ἐστὶν ἐμπόδιον, προαιρέσεως δὲ οὔ. [9.1c] καὶ τοῦτο ἐφ᾽ ἑκάστου τῶν ἐμπιπτόντων ἐπίλεγε: [9.1d] εὑρήσεις γὰρ αὐτὸ ἄλλου τινὸς ἐμπόδιον, σὸν δὲ οὔ.

*Boter reads χώλωσις

Basic Questions

Note: If you desire to get THE answer to the question and the answers to the questions suggested by the Greekstudy members, you may either view the appropriate Greekstudy email which includes the answers, or alternately (if you missed the email) send in your answers to the question(s). I'll be glad to email you the suggested answer and the answers sent in by the Greekstudy members.

Q1 Line 8.1a Μὴ ζήτει τὰ γινόμενα. The negative particle μὴ is used in front of ζήτει instead of οὐ. What does that imply about the mood of the verb ζήτει? Would μὴ ζησαι or μὴ ζησάτω be a valid use of the aorist imperative? If not, why not? Is it valid to translate the phrase as 'Stop seeking to...' versus 'Don't ever seek to...'? Give sections of Smyth for all of the above questions.

Q2 Line 8.1a. εὐροήσεις. The word εὐροήσεις comes from what two lemmas (roots)? The word was a favorite Stoic term. What is your favorite translation?

Q3 Line 9.1a. ἐὰν μὴ αὐτὴ θέλῃ. Translate this phrase. What word does αὐτὴ stand for? What is Epictetus saying about disease?

Q4 Line 9.1b. Boter reads χώλωσις rather than χώλανσις. Is there any difference between these two words? To what part(s) of the body could the word σκέλους refer to in English?

Q5. Line 9.1a. προαιρέσεως. The accent on Greek nouns is different that the accent on Greek verbs. It does not move as far to the front of the word as possible, but tries to remain on the same position as rules will allow (sometimes the accent will change from accute to circumflex, or move a syllable towards the end because of the long/short value of the final vowel or diphthong.) How would you classify the final syllable(s) -εως of προαίρεσις in the form προαιρέσεως - as two separate vowels or a single diphthong? Does the final -εως count as one syllable or two? How do you know? How should one pronounce it?

Q6. Line 9.1d. εὑρήσεις γὰρ αὐτὸ ἄλλου τινὸς ἐμπόδιον, σὸν δὲ οὔ. Translate this phrase. Who is talking? To whom or what is the comment addressed? Does ἄλλου τινὸς refer to another person or another thing? Any reason why the word σὸν rather than σοῦ?

Q7. Lines 9.1 προαιρέσεως δὲ οὔ. σὸν δὲ οὔ. The word order in these two sentences is parallel. Is the position of οὔ emphatic or just a result of a missing verb? Can you find any section in Smyth that would apply?

 

Reading 4 - Optional (Readings 1 & 2) Enchiridion Chapters 6.1-7.1
Apparatus
Translation
Answers
Vocabulary

Κεφάλαιον ϛʹ (Optional 1)

[06.1a] Ἐπὶ μηδενὶ ἐπαρθῇς ἀλλοτρίῳ προτερήματι. [6.1b] εἰ ὁ ἵππος ἐπαιρόμενος ἔλεγεν ὅτι "καλός εἰμι", οἰστὸν ἂν ἦν: [6.1c] σὺ δέ, ὅταν λέγῃς ἐπαιρόμενος ὅτι "ἵππον καλὸν ἔχω", ἴσθι, ὅτι ἐπὶ ἵππου ἀγαθῷ ἐπαίρῃ. [6.1d] τί οὖν ἐστι σόν; χρῆσις φαντασιῶν. [6.1e] ὥσθ᾽, ὅταν ἐν χρήσει φαντασιῶν κατὰ φύσιν σχῇς, τηνικαῦτα ἐπάρθητι: [6.1f] τότε γὰρ ἐπὶ σῷ τινι ἀγαθῷ ἐπαρθήσῃ.

Κεφάλαιον ζʹ (Optional 2)

[7.1a] Καθάπερ ἐν πλῷ τοῦ πλοίου καθορμισθέντος εἰ ἐξέλθοις ὑδρεύσασθαι, ὁδοῦ μὲν πάρεργον καὶ κοχλίδιον ἀναλέξῃ καὶ βολβάριον, τετάσθαι δὲ δεῖ τὴν διάνοιαν ἐπὶ τὸ πλοῖον καὶ συνεχῶς ἐπιστρέφεσθαι, μή ποτε ὁ κυβερνήτης καλέσῃ, [7.1b] κἂν καλέσῃ, πάντα ἐκεῖνα ἀφιέναι, ἵνα μὴ δεδεμένος ἐμβληθῇς ὡς τὰ πρόβατα: [7.1c] οὕτω καὶ ἐν τῷ βίῳ, ἐὰν διδῶται ἀντὶ βολβαρίου καὶ κοχλιδίου γυναικάριον καὶ παιδίον, οὐδὲν κωλύσει: [7.1d] ἐὰν δὲ ὁ κυβερνήτης καλέσῃ, τρέχε ἐπὶ τὸ πλοῖον ἀφεὶς ἐκεῖνα ἅπαντα μηδὲ ἐπιστρεφόμενος. [7.1e] ἐὰν δὲ γέρων ᾖς, μηδὲ ἀπαλλαγῇς ποτε τοῦ πλοίου μακράν, μή ποτε καλοῦντος ἐλλίπῃς.

Optional Questions

Q8 Line 7.1a τοῦ πλοίου καθορμισθέντος. This is a participle phrase. How is it used? What are the rules for the subject of a genitive absolute construction? Does the subject have to be part of the sentence structure or can it be totally independent (i.e. the subject of the genitive absolute is from a prior sentence or totally unrelated clause? What does Smyth have to say? Does the NT have out of context genitive absolutes? How about Hellenistic Greek - same as Attic or different rules?

Q9. Line 6.1b. ἐπαιρόμενος. The various translators give the word ἐπαιρόμενος the definition of 'to be joyful', 'be proud' or 'be elated'. What meaning do you give this word and why?

Q10. Line 6.1b. οἰστὸν ἂν ἦν. The word οἰσ-τὸν is an adjective. What does Smyth call this type of adjective (cf. Smyth §471ff; Robertson pp. 1095-1097)? What verb stem does this adjective come from? Would you classify this adjective as active or passive?

Q11. Line 6.1c. ἴσθι, ὅτι ἐπὶ ἵππου ἀγαθῷ ἐπαίρῃ. What two common words can the imperative ἴσθι be from (cf. Smyth §768 and §794)? Give some other words that use the imperative ending -θι (cf. Smyth §466). Does Homer use this ending? Do any other person/number imperative forms other than the 2nd person singular that have this -θ- (other than the passive -θη-)?

Q12. Line 6.1c. ἴσθι, ὅτι ἐπὶ ἵππου ἀγαθῷ ἐπαίρῃ. How do you translate this phrase? Why is the word ἵππου in the genitive and the word ἀγαθῷ in the dative case? See also line 6.1f ἐπὶ σῷ τινι ἀγαθῷ ἐπαρθήσῃ where σῷ τινι is in the dative, not the genitive.

Q13. Line 7.1a. ὁδοῦ μὲν πάρεργον καὶ κοχλίδιον ἀναλέξῃ. Translate this phrase. Why is the word ὁδοῦ in the genitive and how would you classify its usage? Is the word πάρεργον an adjective agreeing with κοχλίδιον or an adverb? How do you translate πάρεργον?

Q14 Line 7.1a. τετάσθαι δὲ δεῖ τὴν διάνοιαν. What is the base idea of the word τάσσω. Is the idea 'marshal' or 'set as a sentry' or 'keep in order' the best idea behind the word, or do you have a better suggestion. The word τάσσω seems to be used as a military term. Does that connotation come over here, or is that just a specific usage of τάσσω, and in general, τάσσω does not take on the 'military' idea of 'sentry' or 'post'.

Q15. Line 7.1b. ἵνα μὴ δεδεμένος ἐμβληθῇς ὡς τὰ πρόβατα. The metaphor referring to sheep is not as derogatory to modern day English speakers as it most likely was to ancient Greeks (my opinion). LSJ says the word πρόβᾰτον is used proverbially of stupid, lazy people. Can you think of any Greek fables, stories, comparisons where sheep are compared to people (or vice versa)?

Q16. Chapter 7. The ship metaphor is analyzed by Simplicius and each facet is given a meaning. What is your interpretation of what Epictetus intends the following items to represent: the sea, the pilot, the ship and the food?

 

Reading 4 - Advanced Reading 1 Simplicius 13 Selections
Text
Questions
Notes
Apparatus
Answers
Vocabulary

Simplicius Commentary on Chapter 8 (Lemma xiii) ad passim.

This passage talks about the metaphor of God being the pilot. You should be able to follow the passage if you have done the above readings. Α number of Epictetus' Stoic terms appear in the reading below. See if you can find them. The English translation of Brennan and Brittain is included for your aid.

πάντα χρὴ τῆς πρὸς θεὸν ἐπιστροφῆς ἐξαρτᾶν, τὸν τοῦ παντὸς [40] κυβερνήτην, καὶ ἐκείνου ἐχομενον, τούτων κατὰ τάξιν μετέχειν, πρῶτον μὲν τῶν ἀναγκαίων ἐν βίῳ καὶ ὧν χωρὶς ἀδύνατον ζῆν, ἅπερ διὰ τοῦ ὑδρεύσασθαι ἐδήλωσε, τὰ περὶ τροφὴν λέγων καὶ ἀμπεχόνην καὶ οἴκησιν, οἷα καὶ ὅσα τοῖς ἀπερίττως ζῶσιν ἀρκεῖ.

Δοκεῖ δέ μοι καὶ τὸ παράδειγμα πάνυ οἰκείως πεπλασμένον παραγαγεῖν. Τὴν μὲν γὰρ θάλασσαν διὰ τὸ εμβριθὲς καὶ κλυδαινόμενον και παντοίως μεταβαλλόμενον καὶ πνίγον τοὺς καταδύνοντασ εἰς αὐτήν.... Τὸ δὲ πλοῖον εἴη ἂν τὸ διακομίζον εἰς τὴν γένεσιν τὰς ψυχὰς καὶ εἴτε μοιρᾶν, εἴτε εἱμαρμένην, εἴτε ἄλλο τι τοιοῦτον αὐτὸ καλεῖν χρή.   Ὁ δὲ κυβερνήτης τοῦ πλοίου εἴη ἂν ὁ θεός, ὁ καὶ τὸ πᾶν καὶ τὴν...τῶν ψυχῶν...κυβερνῶν. ...Τὸ γὰρ προηγούμενον ἡ πρὸς τὸν κυβερνήτην ἐστὶν τάσις ἀεὶ καὶ ἐπιστροφή.

Ἐαν δὲ ὁ κυβερνήτης καλέσῃ ἐπὶ τὸ πλοῖον, ἀνακαλούμενος ἐντεῦθεν πρὸς ἑαυτόν τε ἡμᾶς καὶ τὴν πατρίδα τὴν ἀληθινὴν ὅθεν ἤλθομεν, τρέχε, φησίν, ἐπὶ τὸ πλοῖον, [40] πάντα ἀφεὶς ἐνταῦθα μηδὲ ἐπιστρεφόμενος, τουτέστι σπεῦδε τῇ ἐντεῦθεν ἀνακλήσει κατακολουθεῖν ἑκών, καὶ λύσας τοὺς πρὸς τὰ τῇδε συνέχοντάσ σε δεσμοὺς καὶ τὰς σχέσεις πάσας ἀφεὶς ἐνταῦθα τὰς πρὸς τὴν γένεσιν, ἀκολούθει καλοῦντι μηδὲ ἐπιστρφόμενος ὅλως , ἵνα μή, καὶ ἐὰν φυσικῶς λυθῇς, κατὰ προαίρεσιν ἐνταῦθα μένῃς·

 

Brennan and Brittain Translation (pp. 79-80)

We must make everything dependent on our turning back to God, the Pilot of the universe; and we must engage with other things according to their rank, holding fast to God. First, we should engage with things that are necessary to life, without which it is impossible to live - i.e. things pertaining to food, clothing, and shelter (indicated by 'finding water') - of the kind and to the extent sufficient for people who are living without extravagance.

In my view, he has produced a very aptly-designed illustration. The sea is heavy, drenching, and changing in every respect, and suffocates people who sink into it; The ship would be whatever conveys souls into the realm of generation, whether this is destiny or fate or whatever else one should call it. The pilot of the ship would be God, because through his providence he steers the universe as well as the descent of souls....Our primary good is permanent attention to and turning back towards the Pilot.

'But if the Pilot calls us' on board the ship, recalling us from here to him, to the true homeland from which we came, then 'run on board the ship', he says, 'dropping all of those things here without even turning back'. That is, make haste to follow your recall from here willingly, by releasing the bonds that hold you to things here, and by dropping everything that attaches you to the realm of generation here, and follow the one who calls, without even turning back to these thins at all. Otherwise, even if you are released physically, you will remain here in your prohairesis.

 

Collected Notes on the text.

The order of the notes may be out of order in relation to the text. Notes will be added as the weeks progress.

Section 6.1 Notes click to expand    []

 

 

Section 7.1 Notes click to expand    []

 

 

Section 8.1 Notes click to expand    []

 

 

Section 9.1 Notes click to expand    []

 

Sentences numbered for sending in the translations

Reading 4: Chapters 6.1-9.1

Optional Reading 1
[0601a] Ἐπὶ μηδενὶ ἐπαρθῇς ἀλλοτρίῳ προτερήματι.
[0601b] εἰ ὁ ἵππος ἐπαιρόμενος ἔλεγεν ὅτι "καλός εἰμι", οἰστὸν ἂν ἦν:
[0601c] σὺ δέ, ὅταν λέγῃς ἐπαιρόμενος ὅτι "ἵππον καλὸν ἔχω", ἴσθι, ὅτι ἐπὶ ἵππου ἀγαθῷ ἐπαίρῃ.
[0601d] τί οὖν ἐστι σόν; χρῆσις φαντασιῶν.
[0601e] ὥσθ᾽, ὅταν ἐν χρήσει φαντασιῶν κατὰ φύσιν σχῇς, τηνικαῦτα ἐπάρθητι:
[0601f] τότε γὰρ ἐπὶ σῷ τινι ἀγαθῷ ἐπαρθήσῃ.

Optional Reading 2
[0701a] Καθάπερ ἐν πλῷ τοῦ πλοίου καθορμισθέντος εἰ ἐξέλθοις ὑδρεύσασθαι, ὁδοῦ μὲν πάρεργον καὶ κοχλίδιον ἀναλέξῃ καὶ βολβάριον, τετάσθαι δὲ δεῖ τὴν διάνοιαν ἐπὶ τὸ πλοῖον καὶ συνεχῶς ἐπιστρέφεσθαι, μή ποτε ὁ κυβερνήτης καλέσῃ,
[0701b] κἂν καλέσῃ, πάντα ἐκεῖνα ἀφιέναι, ἵνα μὴ δεδεμένος ἐμβληθῇς ὡς τὰ πρόβατα:
[0701c] οὕτω καὶ ἐν τῷ βίῳ, ἐὰν διδῶται ἀντὶ βολβαρίου καὶ κοχλιδίου γυναικάριον καὶ παιδίον, οὐδὲν κωλύσει:
[0701d] ἐὰν δὲ ὁ κυβερνήτης καλέσῃ, τρέχε ἐπὶ τὸ πλοῖον ἀφεὶς ἐκεῖνα ἅπαντα μηδὲ ἐπιστρεφόμενος.
[0701e] ἐὰν δὲ γέρων ᾖς, μηδὲ ἀπαλλαγῇς ποτε τοῦ πλοίου μακράν, μή ποτε καλοῦντος ἐλλίπῃς.

Basic Reading 1
[0801a] Μὴ ζήτει τὰ γινόμενα γίνεσθαι ὡς θέλεις, ἀλλὰ θέλε τὰ γινόμενα ὡς γίνεται καὶ εὐροήσεις.

Basic Reading 2
[0901a] Νόσος σώματός ἐστιν ἐμπόδιον, προαιρέσεως δὲ οὔ, ἐὰν μὴ αὐτὴ θέλῃ.
[0901b] χώλανσις σκέλους ἐστὶν ἐμπόδιον, προαιρέσεως δὲ οὔ.
[0901c] καὶ τοῦτο ἐφ᾽ ἑκάστου τῶν ἐμπιπτόντων ἐπίλεγε:
[0901d] εὑρήσεις γὰρ αὐτὸ ἄλλου τινὸς ἐμπόδιον, σὸν δὲ οὔ.

 

Table of Words

The local gloss is context-specific. The word-link and lemma-link are linked to the Perseus Hopper vocabulary tool. I have gone through the Greek lemma and verified them for accuracy - but there may still be some errors. Many of the definitions have been taken from the following translations: Mattheson, Boter, White, Oldfather and Long. If you have a better suggestion for a word, send in the word number, Greek word and suggested gloss, and I will add it into the vocabulary list.

A note of caution: Perseus does not always work as expected. The links are betacode which works better than sending in Greek Unicode lookups. But sometimes it still will not work. In addition, Perseus is often slow - if you see it cranking and cranking, try later, the server is too busy. An example of unexpected results is as follows: the neuter plural form ἀπαραπόδιστα returns 'not found'; the root lemma ἀπαραπόδιστος brings up its own correct entry. Some words are only listed in the Middle LSJ, not the main LSJ (e.g. οὐδέπω). So if you look up οὐδέπω in the Archimedes Harvard LSJ or your own personal copy, you won't find it.

The columns for vocabulary frequency are compiled from Perseus' Max frequency for the Enchiridion (EnchX) and all of Epictetus' works (EpicX including the Enchiridion). The New Testament frequencies are from Tischendorf's NT as provided by MorphGnt.org. Words are linked on betacode, but some lemmas do not link correctly (a problem that will be fixed over time), thus there are occasionally NTX freqencies that are missing or partial. When comparing the frequency of the various works, you should remember the Enchiridion (4983 words) is about the same length as the book of Hebrews (4953 words) and all Epictetus' writings (The Discourses - 75,177 words, Fragments - 4023 words,and Enchiridion - 4983 words; grand total - 84183) are 60% of the length of the New Testament (138,019 words). Although both the Epictus' works and the New Testament books are different in content and author, if you multiply the Epictetus frequency by 1.6 (EpicX x 1.6) you can come up with a comparable usage between the two works.

 

qryEnchiridionWords_ReadingsLemma
WordID Reference GWord WordLink LemmaLink LocalGloss Construction POS Parsing EnchX EpicX NTX
553 6.1 Ἐπὶ Ἐπὶ
ἐπί
of


77 642 890
554 6.1 μηδενὶ μηδενὶ
μηδείς
not any


10 133 92
555 6.1 ἐπαρθῇς ἐπαρθῇς
ἐπαίρω
to be proud, elated, joyful


6 23 19
556 6.1 ἀλλοτρίῳ ἀλλοτρίῳ
ἀλλότριος
not one's own


8 85 14
557 6.1 προτερήματι προτερήματι
προτέρημα
excellence, superiority


1 1
558 6.1 εἰ εἰ
εἰ
if 2nd Class condition

46 785 491
559 6.1

(generic - a)


502 8830 19787
560 6.1 ἵππος ἵππος
ἵππος
a horse


3 36 17
561 6.1 ἐπαιρόμενος ἐπαιρόμενος
ἐπαίρω
to be proud, elated, be joyful


6 23 19
562 6.1 ἔλεγεν ἔλεγεν
λέγω
to say imperfect = present

19 600 2258
563 6.1 ὅτι ὅτι
ὅτι
(quotation marks - untranslated) quote introduction

68 849 1299
564 6.1 καλός καλός
καλός
beautiful


11 255 101
565 6.1 εἰμι εἰμι
εἰμί
to be: I am


132 2174 2461
566 6.1 οἰστὸν οἰστὸν
οἰστός
to be bearable, endured, put up with


1 6
567 6.1 ἂν ἂν
ἄν
would


48 730 165
568 6.1 ἦν ἦν
εἰμί
to be imperfect = present

132 2174 2461
569 6.1 σὺ σὺ
σύ
you


96 1336 2903
570 6.1 δέ δέ
δέ
but


109 1649 2781
571 6.1 ὅταν ὅταν
ὅταν
when


31 266 123
572 6.1 λέγῃς λέγῃς
λέγω
to say


19 600 2258
573 6.1 ἐπαιρόμενος ἐπαιρόμενος
ἐπαίρω
to be proud, elated, joyful


6 23 19
574 6.1 ὅτι ὅτι
ὅτι
(quotation marks - untranslated) quote introduction

68 849 1299
575 6.1 ἵππον ἵππον
ἵππος
a horse


3 36 17
576 6.1 καλὸν καλὸν
καλός
beautiful


11 255 101
577 6.1 ἔχω ἔχω
ἔχω
to have


37 732 707
578 6.1 ἴσθι ἴσθι
οἴδα
know, rest assured, but certainly





579 6.1 ὅτι ὅτι
ὅτι
that


68 849 1299
580 6.1 ἐπὶ ἐπὶ
ἐπί
about


77 642 890
581 6.1 ἵππου ἵππου
ἵππος
a horse


3 36 17
582 6.1 ἀγαθῷ ἀγαθῷ
ἀγαθός
good


13 272 102
583 6.1 ἐπαίρῃ ἐπαίρῃ
ἐπαίρω
to boast, be elated


6 23 19
584 6.1 τί τί
τίς
What


161 3733 532
585 6.1 οὖν οὖν
οὖν
then


40 778 489
586 6.1 ἐστι ἐστι
εἰμί
to be: is


132 2174 2461
587 6.1 σόν σόν
σός
yours, your own


41 281 26
588 6.1 χρῆσις χρῆσις
χρῆσις
use


4 41 2
589 6.1 φαντασιῶν φαντασιῶν
φαντασία
an impression, external impression, appearance; χρῆσις φαντασιῶν way of dealing with appearances


11 118 1
590 6.1 ὥσθ᾽ ὥσθ᾽
ὥστε
therefore


5 67 85
591 6.1 ὅταν ὅταν
ὅταν
when


31 266 123
592 6.1 ἐν ἐν
ἐν
in


49 629 2743
593 6.1 χρήσει χρήσει
χρῆσις
a use


4 41 2
594 6.1 φαντασιῶν φαντασιῶν
φαντασία
an impression, external impression; χρῆσις φαντασιῶν way of dealing with appearances


11 118 1
595 6.1 κατὰ κατὰ
κατά
in accordance with, in harmony with, in accord with (+ acc.)


15 221 471
596 6.1 φύσιν φύσιν
φύσις
nature


15 192 14
597 6.1 σχῇς σχῇς
ἔω
to behave; σχῇς κατὰ φύσιν be in harmony with nature

Aor Subj


598 6.1 τηνικαῦτα τηνικαῦτα
τηνικαῦτα
then


1 2
599 6.1 ἐπάρθητι ἐπάρθητι
ἐπαίρω
to be proud, be elated


6 23 19
600 6.1 τότε τότε
τότε
then


4 43 157
601 6.1 γὰρ γὰρ
γάρ
for


49 781 1036
602 6.1 ἐπὶ ἐπὶ
ἐπί
of


77 642 890
603 6.1 σῷ σῷ
σός
your own


41 281 26
604 6.1 τινι τινι
τις
some


163 3876
605 6.1 ἀγαθῷ ἀγαθῷ
ἀγαθός
good (thing) substantival

13 272 102
606 6.1 ἐπαρθήσῃ ἐπαρθήσῃ
ἐπαίρω
to be proud, elated, joyful


6 23 19
607 7.1 Καθάπερ Καθάπερ
καθάπερ
just as





608 7.1 ἐν ἐν
ἐν
on


49 629 2743
609 7.1 πλῷ πλῷ
πλόος
voyage


1 4 3
610 7.1 τοῦ τοῦ

the


502 8830 19787
611 7.1 πλοίου πλοίου
πλοῖος
ship





612 7.1 καθορμισθέντος καθορμισθέντος
καθορμίζω
to lay at anchor


1 1
613 7.1 εἰ εἰ
εἰ
if


46 785 491
614 7.1 ἐξέλθοις ἐξέλθοις
ἐξέρχομαι
to go ashore

Optative 1 38 221
615 7.1 ὑδρεύσασθαι ὑδρεύσασθαι
ὑδρεύω
to get water, get fresh water





616 7.1 ὁδοῦ ὁδοῦ
ὁδός
on the way


3 22 101
617 7.1 μὲν μὲν
μέν
(used in comparisons - not always translated) μὲν...δὲ

33 536 177
618 7.1 πάρεργον πάρεργον
πάρεργον
incidental, as something done in addition, as an aside


2 5
619 7.1 καὶ καὶ
καί
also καὶ...καὶ

206 4196 8977
620 7.1 κοχλίδιον κοχλίδιον
κοχλίδιον
a shell-fish, small shell-fish


2 2
621 7.1 ἀναλέξῃ ἀναλέξῃ
ἀναλέγω
to collect, pick up


1 1
622 7.1 καὶ καὶ
καί
or καὶ...καὶ

206 4196 8977
623 7.1 βολβάριον βολβάριον
βολβάριον
a bulb, little bulb, vegetable


2 2
624 7.1 τετάσθαι τετάσθαι
τάσσω
to post (as a sentry), appoint,order; τετάσθαι τὴν διάνοιαν to stay focused, keep watching


3 17 9
625 7.1 δὲ δὲ
δέ
but μὲν...δὲ

109 1649 2781
626 7.1 δεῖ δεῖ
δεῖ
to have to impersonal + complementary infinitive

19 428 103
627 7.1 τὴν τὴν

the


502 8830 19787
628 7.1 διάνοιαν διάνοιαν
διάνοια
attention, mind


1 16 12
629 7.1 ἐπὶ ἐπὶ
ἐπί
on


77 642 890
630 7.1 τὸ τὸ

the


502 8830 19787
631 7.1 πλοῖον πλοῖον
πλοῖος
boat, ship





632 7.1 καὶ καὶ
καί
and


206 4196 8977
633 7.1 συνεχῶς συνεχῶς
συνέχω
continually, frequently





634 7.1 ἐπιστρέφεσθαι ἐπιστρέφεσθαι
ἐπιστρέφω
to look back, turn about


4 45 36
635 7.1 μή μή
μή
not


89 1079 1033
636 7.1 ποτε ποτε
ποτε
μή ποτε in case, for fear





637 7.1

the


502 8830 19787
638 7.1 κῠβερνήτης κῠβερνήτης
κυβερνήτης
captain


2 11 2
639 7.1 καλέσῃ καλέσῃ
καλέω
to call


7 61 148
640 7.1 κἂν κἂν
κἄν
and if





641 7.1 καλέσῃ καλέσῃ
καλέω
to call


7 61 148
642 7.1 πάντα πάντα
πᾶς
all


27 426 1226
643 7.1 ἐκεῖνα ἐκεῖνα
ἐκεῖνος
those


23 442 240
644 7.1 ἀφιέναι ἀφιέναι
ἀφίημι
to leave behind, give up, let go of


5 94 143
645 7.1 ἵνα ἵνα
ἵνα
in order that, so


8 226 665
646 7.1 μὴ μὴ
μή
not


89 1079 1033
647 7.1 δεδεμένος δεδεμένος
δέω
to tie; pass. be bound


20 478 43
648 7.1 ἐμβληθῇς ἐμβληθῇς
ἐμβάλλω
pass.: to be thrown on board


1 6 1
649 7.1 ὡς ὡς
ὡς
as


40 555 502
650 7.1 τὰ τὰ

the


502 8830 19787
651 7.1 πρόβατα πρόβατα
πρόβατον
a sheep (often used in insults - livestock)


2 21 39
652 7.1 οὕτω οὕτω
οὕτως
so


33 406
653 7.1 καὶ καὶ
καί
also, too


206 4196 8977
654 7.1 ἐν ἐν
ἐν
in


49 629 2743
655 7.1 τῷ τῷ


(often left untranslated in English)

502 8830 19787
656 7.1 βίῳ βίῳ
βίος
life


1 45 10
657 7.1 ἐὰν ἐὰν
ἐάν
if


85 817 333
658 7.1 διδῶται διδῶται
δίδωμι
to give; pass. be given


9 150 414
659 7.1 ἀντὶ ἀντὶ
ἀντί
instead of + gen.

5 61 22
660 7.1 βολβαρίου βολβαρίου
βολβάριον
a bulb, vegetable


2 2
661 7.1 καὶ καὶ
καί
or, and


206 4196 8977
662 7.1 κοχλιδίου κοχλιδίου
κοχλίδιον
a small shell-fish


2 2
663 7.1 γυναικάριον γυναικάριον
γυναικάριον
a wife


1 7 1
664 7.1 καὶ καὶ
καί
or, and


206 4196 8977
665 7.1 παιδίον παιδίον
παιδίον
a child


5 69 52
666 7.1 οὐδὲν οὐδὲν
οὐδείς
nothing


33 445 235
667 7.1 κωλύσει κωλύσει
κωλύω
to be against, hinder; οὐδὲν κωλύσει be no objection (Oldfather)


4 70 23
668 7.1 ἐὰν ἐὰν
ἐάν
if


85 817 333
669 7.1 δὲ δὲ
δέ
but


109 1649 2781
670 7.1

the


502 8830 19787
671 7.1 κυβερνήτης κυβερνήτης
κυβερνήτης
captain


2 11 2
672 7.1 καλέσῃ καλέσῃ
καλέω
to call


7 61 148
673 7.1 τρέχε τρέχε
τρέχω
to run


1 7 20
674 7.1 ἐπὶ ἐπὶ
ἐπί
for


77 642 890
675 7.1 τὸ τὸ

the


502 8830 19787
676 7.1 πλοῖον πλοῖον
πλοῖος
ship





677 7.1 ἀφεὶς ἀφεὶς
ἀφίημι
to leave behind, give up


5 94 143
678 7.1 ἐκεῖνα ἐκεῖνα
ἐκεῖνος
those


23 442 240
679 7.1 ἅπαντα ἅπαντα
ἅπας
all


6 47 42
680 7.1 μηδὲ μηδὲ
μηδέ
without so much as, without even


14 129 54
681 7.1 ἐπιστρεφόμενος ἐπιστρεφόμενος
ἐπιστρέφω
to look back, turn around, turn back


4 45 36
682 7.1 ἐὰν ἐὰν
ἐάν
if


85 817 333
683 7.1 δὲ δὲ
δέ
but


109 1649 2781
684 7.1 γέρων γέρων
γέρων
old, an old man


1 14 1
685 7.1 ᾖς ᾖς
εἰμί
to be: you are


132 2174 2461
686 7.1 μηδὲ μηδὲ
μηδέ
never


14 129 54
687 7.1 ἀπαλλαγῇς ἀπαλλαγῇς
ἀπαλλάσσω
move away from, get far from


2 31 3
688 7.1 ποτε ποτε
ποτε
μηδὲ...ποτε never...even





689 7.1 τοῦ τοῦ

the


502 8830 19787
690 7.1 πλοίου πλοίου
πλοῖος
boat, ship





691 7.1 μακράν μακράν
μακρός
far


3 24 4
692 7.1 μή μή
μή
not


89 1079 1033
693 7.1 ποτε ποτε
ποτε
μή ποτε lest, for fear + subjunctive




694 7.1 καλοῦντος καλοῦντος
καλέω
to call


7 61 148
695 7.1 ἐλλίπῃς ἐλλίπῃς
ἐλλείπω
pass.: to be missing, left behind


1 1
696 8.1 Μὴ Μὴ
μή
not


89 1079 1033
697 8.1 ζήτει ζήτει
ζητέω
seek


4 109 117
698 8.1 τὰ τὰ

the


502 8830 19787
699 8.1 γινόμενα γινόμενα
γίνομαι
to be; τὰ γινόμενα events, things that happen





700 8.1 γίνεσθαι γίνεσθαι
γίνομαι
to happen





701 8.1 ὡς ὡς
ὡς
as


40 555 502
702 8.1 θέλεις θέλεις
ἐθέλω
to wish, want


33 484
703 8.1 ἀλλὰ ἀλλὰ
ἀλλά
but


55 953 635
704 8.1 θέλε θέλε
ἐθέλω
to wish, want


33 484
705 8.1 τὰ τὰ

the


502 8830 19787
706 8.1 γινόμενα γινόμενα
γίνομαι
to be; τὰ γινόμενα events, things that happen





707 8.1 ὡς ὡς
ὡς
as


40 555 502
708 8.1 γίνεται γίνεται
γίνομαι
to happen sing. + plural neuter subject




709 8.1 καὶ καὶ
καί
and


206 4196 8977
710 8.1 εὐροήσεις εὐροήσεις
εὑροέω
to be well; all will be well, your life will be serene





711 9.1 Νόσος Νόσος
νόσος
an illness, disease


2 16 11
712 9.1 σώματός σώματός
σῶμα
body


10 101 141
713 9.1 ἐστιν ἐστιν
εἰμί
to be


132 2174 2461
714 9.1 ἐμπόδιον ἐμπόδιον
ἐμπόδιος
an impediment, interfere's with...


3 5
715 9.1 προαιρέσεως προαιρέσεως
προαιρέσις
choice, moral purpose, faculty of choice





716 9.1 δὲ δὲ
δέ
but


109 1649 2781
717 9.1 οὔ οὔ
οὐ
not


85 1681 1626
718 9.1 ἐὰν ἐὰν
ἐάν
if


85 817 333
719 9.1 μὴ μὴ
μή
not


89 1079 1033
720 9.1 αὐτὴ αὐτὴ
αὐτός
it


80 1357 5568
721 9.1 θέλῃ θέλῃ
ἐθέλω
to wish, to consent


33 484
722 9.1 χώλανσις χώλανσις
χώλανσις
lameness


1 1
723 9.1 σκέλους σκέλους
σκέλος
a leg, limb


1 12 3
724 9.1 ἐστὶν ἐστὶν
εἰμί
to be


132 2174 2461
725 9.1 ἐμπόδιον ἐμπόδιον
ἐμπόδιος
an impediment, interferes with...


3 5
726 9.1 προαιρέσεως προαιρέσεως
προαιρέσις
choice, moral purpose, faculty of choice





727 9.1 δὲ δὲ
δέ
but


109 1649 2781
728 9.1 οὔ οὔ
οὐ
not


85 1681 1626
729 9.1 καὶ καὶ
καί
and


206 4196 8977
730 9.1 τοῦτο τοῦτο
οὗτος
this


78 1657 1380
731 9.1 ἐφ᾽ ἐφ᾽
ἐπί
about


77 642 890
732 9.1 ἑκάστου ἑκάστου
ἑκάστος
each





733 9.1 τῶν τῶν

the


502 8830 19787
734 9.1 ἐμπιπτόντων ἐμπιπτόντων
ἐμπίπτω
to fall into; ἐφ᾽ ἑκάστου τῶν ἐμπιπτόντων about each of the things that happen


3 20 7
735 9.1 ἐπίλεγε ἐπίλεγε
ἐπιλέγω
to say


5 7 1
736 9.1 εὑρήσεις εὑρήσεις
εὑρίσκω
to find, discover





737 9.1 γὰρ γὰρ
γάρ
for


49 781 1036
738 9.1 αὐτὸ αὐτὸ
αὐτός
it


80 1357 5568
739 9.1 ἄλλου ἄλλου
ἄλλος
else


32 663 155
740 9.1 τινὸς τινὸς
τις
something


163 3876
741 9.1 ἐμπόδιον ἐμπόδιον
ἐμπόδιος
an impediment, to interfere with...


3 5
742 9.1 σὸν σὸν
σός
you, your, yourself (singular)


41 281 26
743 9.1 δὲ δὲ
δέ
but


109 1649 2781
744 9.1 οὔ οὔ
οὐ
not


85 1681 1626