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Reading 03: April 7

Chapters 3.1-5.1
Translations Due Sunday, April 13 (midnight CST)
Grammar Questions Due Tuesday, April 15 (midnight CST)

Reading Selections by Group
Level Book Sections Title
Questions
Perseus
Notes
Basic
Enchiridion
3.1
What sort is your entertainment?
Optional 1
Enchiridion
4.1
What sort are your deeds?
Optional 2
Enchiridion
5.1
Judgements not Events Disturb Us.
Advanced 1
Disccourses
2.23.8
What is Proairesis?
NA
2.23
NA
Advanced 2
 
 
NA
 
NA

 

Other Aids
Greek Sentences
Instructions for sending in translations
Audio File
An mp3 audio recording(s) using Erasmian pronunciation. 3.1  4.1 5.1
An mp3 audio recording(s) of the weekly Enchiridion reading using 'Living Koine' pronunciation: <----Instructions: Right click file name and select "save file as" for Microsoft Windows OS.
Greek Text (Pdf file of the reading)

Schenkl's 1916 Text of the weekly reading (Text used by this group and Perseus). A several page pdf file.

Diglott weekly reading with Greek text and English translation (4x6 index card size pdf file)

Diglott weekly reading Greek text, English translation and vocabulary (A 8.5 x 11 2 page pdf file.)

Notes on the Greek Text Schweighauser's 1799 Greek Text (Schenkl's Source ) of the weekly reading with Wolf's Latin Translation and Schweighauser's notes. A several page pdf file. Heyne's 1756 Epicteti Enchiridium Graece et Latine with notes and Upton's Latin translation. A several page pdf file. Thurot's 1903 Reading 03 (French with Greek notes and commentary).  A several page pdf file.
Vocabulary
A table of the Enchiridion weekly reading word by word with links to the Perseus word form AND the correct lemma. (Each word has its own number, definitions taken from various translations.)
Vocabulary of the entire Enchiridion with frequency statistics and glosses (a work in progress) Special vocabulary: a table of the 100+ words that Epictetus uses frequently or in a special sense.

Things Happen - What's a Stoic to do?

(Pictures wanted of Greek Baths, Greek pitchers.)

In chapters 1-2 Epictetus set down the basic principles of how to think about your emotions and impressions. He tries to get the reader to 'think like I think'. Chapters 3-8 of the Enchiridion are a very fun section to read. Rather than talk about the belief system that his students should have, he gives some practical application and examples. Chapters 1-8 of the Enchiridion (to me) read like a preacher's sermon: the proposition (1.1-2.2), illustration(s) (3.1-7.1)and summation (8.1).

Encheiridion Passage
The Example
The conclusion The Point The Discipline(s) Involved
3.1 A Pitcher If you lose someone or something you love,, you won't be disturbed ἀποθανόντας οὐ ταραχθήσῃ
Discipline of ?
4.1 At the Public Baths You will not be upset by the things that are happening to you. τὰ γινόμενα οὐ ἀγανακτήσῃ
Discipline of ?
5.1 How to think about Death Neither the the things that happen nor how you think about them will disturb you. τὰ δόγματα ου ταράξῃ
Discipline of ?
6.1 Boasting in Possessions You will not be uplifted by false impressions. κακία φαντασία οὐ ἐπαρθήσῃ Discipline of ?
7.1 Taking a Ship Voyage Nothing will hinder you οὐδὲν κωλύσει Discipline of ?
8.1

The Summation: Μὴ ζήτει τὰ γινόμενα γίνεσθαι ὡς θέλεις, ἀλλὰ θέλε τὰ γινόμενα ὡς γίνεται καὶ εὐροήσεις

Don't seek to have events happen as you wish, but wish them to happen as they do happen, and all will be well with you.

(translation by Boter)

Μὴ ζήτει τὰ γινόμενα γίνεσθαι ὡς θέλεις Discipline of ?

So what is a good Stoic to do in the above situations? Apply the principles of Epictetus' three step plan (most often called the three topoi). The three topoi listed in Reading 2 are as follows:

  1. The Discipline of Desire: control your desires and aversions - ὅρμη καὶ ἔκλισσις (both what you desire and what you dislike)
  2. The Discipline of Action: control your choices -προαίρεσις (you have to know what you can and cannot do along with what you should and should not do, you must choose to do or not do things based on the right criteria.)
  3. The Discipline of Assent: control your impressions - φαντασίαι (what we think about situations, how we evaluate them, false assumptions, etc.)

The above chart lists the examples he uses. What are the disciplines that he suggests a person use? I have left the column entitled 'Discipline(s) Involved' open for your suggestions.

 

Illustrations:

Greek Pitchers

(pictures wanted)

Jars, vessels, pitchers and urns were the basic stuff of Greek living and history. (This section is still being updated). The Enchiridion 3.1 uses the example of a χύτρα, ἡ. is listed in LSJ as an earthen pot. Woodhouse's Greek-English lexicon gives the following references:

Pitcher, subs. P. and V. ἀμφορεύς, ὁ (Eur., Cycl.), Ar. and P. ὑδρία, ἡ, ἀγγεῖον, τό, Ar. and V. πρόχους ἡ, ἄγγος, τό, V. κύτος, τό, τεῦχος, τό (also Xen. but rare P.), κρῶσσοι, οἱ, Ar. καλπίς, ἡ.


Greek Baths

Greek baths were a part of everyday Greek life. No doubt, the young men that were in Epictetus' classes went to the baths for a light workout and relaxing bath. From the example given in the Enchiridion Chapter 5, it seems like the baths were not the relaxing day-spa, but rather the opposite. You never know what to expect, what conflicts will arise, what criminals will take advantage of the situation. Resources are Bathing in Public in the Roman World By Garrett G. Fagan, University of Michigan. Early Greek baths were different than Roman period baths to some extent. A good online article can be found at Michael Lahanas' site. Garret Fagan at Pennsylvania State University has a website relating to Roman baths. The University of Saskatchewan has a resource page with links to other bath websites compiled by John Porter. Searching Google Books will bring more results.

 

Aids to Reading the Greek

Special Words

The meanings of the LSJ lexicon do not always point out or fit the 'Stoic' use of terms. Seddon lists some of the fowords as being 'key' terms for this chapter. Words marked with an asteric* were added by this author. Some of them are 'Stoic specific'; most are not. As the special vocabulary page is being built, a fuller 'special lexicon' will become available to help understand the Greek word. Here are some of the brief glosses.

Chapter 3 Words
Chapter 4 Words
Chapter 5 Words
ἄνθρωπος man, person
καταφιλέω to kiss
παιδίον τό child
στέργω to desire, love
ταράσσω to trouble, agitate, disturb; pass. be troubled, upset
χρείαν παρέχω to have a need
ψῡχᾰγωγέω to delude, lead astray

ἀγανακτέω to be irritated
ἔργον τό work, deed, act
κατὰ φύσιν according to nature
προαίρεσις moral character, will, volition, choice, predisposition to choose




ἀπαιδευτός uneducated
βλάπτω to blame
δεινός, ή, όν terrible
δόγμα τό judgements
ἐμποδίζω to hinder
ἔργον τό *deed(s)
θάνατος, death
λυπέω to be distressed
πρᾶγμα, ατος, τό an act, event
Σωκρᾰ́τ-ης, ὁ, Socrates

A note should be said about the word προαίρεσις. This is perhaps THE KEY WORD to comprehend when one is trying to understand Epictetus' philosophy. There is a wide range of translations for the word by various translators. Some believe that Epictetus takes the word from Aristotle and modifies its usage. Some of the translations given to it are: choice, choices, sphere of choice, will, freedom of choice, faculty of choice, moral character, moral choice, moral nature, moral personality, moral purpose , volition, my (own) mind, purpose, and inclination to choose. Epictetus talks about what προαίρεσις is and does in the Discourses 2.23.8ff, selections of this passage are in the advanced reading, the term specifically used in that passage is 'ἡ προαιρετική δύναμις.' There are a number of cognate words that are also related to προαίρεσις; the bold words are used by Epictetus:

     

ἀντιπροαίρεσις
ἀποπροαιρέω
ἀπροαιρεσία
ἀπροαίρετος
αὐτοπροαίρετος
ἀπροαιρετικός
εὐπροαίρετος

προαίρεσις
προαιρετέον
προαιρετέος
προαιρέτης
προαιρετικός
προαιρετός
προαιρέω
 

 

The LSJ applicable definitions are as follows:

προαίρ-εσις, εως, ἡ, choosing one thing before another, Pl. Prm. 143c; purpose, resolution, π. καὶ πρᾶξις Id.Def.413a, cf. Arist.EN1094a2; opp. ἀνάγκη, Isoc. 1.10; ἐκ π. καὶ βουλήσεως D.44.57, cf. Arist. PA 657b1; ἡ κατὰ π. κίνησις Id.Metaph.1015a33; τὰ κατὰ π. ἀδικήματα wrongs done from malice prepense, Lycurg.148; ζῆν κατὰ π., as a test of freedom. Arist.Pol.1280a34; παρὰ τὴν π. contrary to one's purpose, Id.Metaph.1015a27; as characteristic of moral action, ἡ π. βουλευτικὴ ὄρεξις τῶν ἐφ' ἡμῖν Id.EN1113a10, cf. 1139a23; inclination, χρῶ ὡς βούλει τῇ σεαυτοῦ π. Epicur.Sent.V at.51; motive, κατὰ προαίρεσιν δακρύειν Hp.Aph.4.52.

2. purpose, plan, or scope of action, τῇ π. τοῦ βίου D.23.141, 48.56; οὐδενὸς εὐδοκιμεῖ πράγματος ἡ π. Id.Prooem. 50; ἐπὶ τῇ τοῦ πλεονεκτεῖν π. ζῆν Id.23.127; ἀναίδεια καὶ π. πονηρίας deliberate wickedness, Id.Ep.3.18; τῶν καλῶν ἔργων Zaleuc. ap. Stob. 4.2.19: abs., course of life, principle of action, ἐν π. χρηστῇ καὶ βίῳ σώφρονι ζῆν D.Ep.l.c.; διὰ τὰς τέτταρας δραχμὰς ἀποβάλω τὴν π.; Strato Com.1.33: pl., principles, Isoc.1.9; αἱ κοιναὶ π. D.18.210, etc.

6. conduct, διὰ ταύτης τῆς π. Plb.18.3.3; ἀνεπίληπτος π. Id.14.2.14, cf. 30.8.1, 39.3.11.

7. character, reputation, ἠστόχει τῆς σφετέρας π. had no regard for his own reputation, Id.7.14.3; ἀείμνηστον καὶ καλὴν ἔχει τὴν π. Id.9.9.10; καταξίως ..τῆς τῶν ἀλειφομένων π. Arch.Pap.3.134 (Thera, iii/ii B.C.).

9. expressed opinion, advice, τὴν π. ἀποδεξάμενοι τοῦ λέγοντος Plb.39.3.9, cf. 2.42.4, 7.13.4, 7.14.1.

Sophocles Lexicon: choice, the will

 

Corrections to the Text

The Perseus text matches Schenkl and Oldfather (Loeb). Boter selects several variant readings and splits Chapter 5 into two parts 5a and 5b (beginning at 5.1d), considering them separate topical sections.

 

Reading 3: Chapters 3.1-5.1

Reading 3 - Basic Group Enchiridion Chapter 3.1
Apparatus
Translation
Answers
Vocabulary

   Enchiridion 3.1-5.1
[3.1a] Ἐφ᾽ ἑκάστου τῶν ψυχαγωγούντων ἢ χρείαν παρεχόντων ἢ στεργομένων μέμνησο ἐπιλέγειν, ὁποῖόν ἐστιν, ἀπὸ τῶν σμικροτάτων ἀρξάμενος: [3.1b] ἂν χύτραν στέργῃς, ὅτι "χύτραν στέργω". [3.1c] κατεαγείσης γὰρ αὐτῆς οὐ ταραχθήσῃ: [3.1d] ἂν παιδίον σαυτοῦ καταφιλῇς ἢ γυναῖκα, ὅτι ἄνθρωπον καταφιλεῖς: [3.1e] ἀποθανόντος γὰρ οὐ ταραχθήσῃ.

 

Basic Questions

Note: If you desire to get THE answer (if there is one) to the question and the answers to the questions suggested by the Greekstudy members, you may either view the appropriate Greekstudy email which includes the answers, or alternately (if you missed the email) send in your answers to the question(s). I'll be glad to email you the suggested answer and the answers sent in by the Greekstudy members.

Q1. Line 3.1a. What is the best translation for the word ψυχαγωγούντων. What two roots does it come from?

Q2. Line 3.1a. What is the best translation for the phrase χρείαν παρεχόντων? Are there any other uses given for the verb παρέχω in LSJ or BADG that are similar?

Q3. Line 3.1a. The word ἀρξάμενος comes from ἄρχω. This is one of the words where the middle/passive has a major difference in meaning than the active. What are the two meanings?

Q4. Line 3.1a The word σμικροτάτων is from what word? What word is the definition listed under? Can you explain why the initial sigma appears on some forms and not on others? How often does it appear as one or the other? Hellenistic or Attic?

Q5. Line 3.1b. The word στέργω also appears in the New Testament. What is the idea behind the word. What other words have a similar idea (i.e. list some synonyms)?

Q6. Line 3.1c. Parse the word κατεαγείσης. Why does the epsilon appear in the stem? Is there a rule for why the augment/reduplication appears as it does? What section in your grammar(s) applies. What are examples of other word(s) that form the same way?

Q7. Line 3.1c. The word ταραχθήσῃ comes from ταράσσω. What is the stem? Why does the present tense appear as it does with double -σσ- and the aorist passive -χθ-, etc. What section in Smyth applies? List a few other words that act similarly.

Q8. Line 3.1e. The word ἀποθανόντος is a participle. How is it used?

Q9. Line 3.1d. Give another valid form for the word σαυτοῦ. Is the form σαυτοῦ Hellenistic (Koine) or is it used in Attic Greek? Where would you look to find out?

Q10. Line 3.1d The word παιδίον ends in -ίον. What do we call this suffix? It is used for any other purpose (i.e. meaning) than conveying the idea of 'small'? What are some other words that end the same way. (I've noticed Epictetus likes to use this form frequently).

Q11. Line 3.1d. What is the best translation for the word ἄνθρωπον in the phrase ὅτι ἄνθρωπον καταφιλεῖς?

 

Reading 3 - Optional Reading 1 & 2 Enchiridion Chapters 4.1-5.1
Apparatus
Translation
Answers
Vocabulary

[4.1a] Ὅταν ἅπτεσθαί τινος ἔργου μέλλῃς, ὑπομίμνῃσκε σεαυτόν, ὁποῖόν ἐστι τὸ ἔργον. [4.1b] ἐὰν λουσόμενος ἀπίῃς, πρόβαλλε σεαυτῷ τὰ γινόμενα ἐν βαλανείῳ, τοὺς ἀπορραίνοντας, τοὺς ἐγκρουομένους, τοὺς λοιδοροῦντας, τοὺς κλέπτοντας. [4.1c] καὶ οὕτως ἀσφαλέστερον ἅψῃ τοῦ ἔργου, ἐὰν ἐπιλέγῃς εὐθὺς ὅτι "λούσασθαι θέλω καὶ τὴν ἐμαυτοῦ προαίρεσιν κατὰ φύσιν ἔχουσαν τηρῆσαι". [4.1d] καὶ ὡσαύτως ἐφ᾽ ἑκάστου ἔργου. [4.1e] οὕτω γὰρ ἄν τι πρὸς τὸ λούσασθαι γένηται ἐμποδών, πρόχειρον ἔσται διότι [4.1f] "ἀλλ᾽ οὐ τοῦτο ἤθελον μόνον, ἀλλὰ καὶ τὴν ἐμαυτοῦ προαίρεσιν κατὰ φύσιν ἔχουσαν τηρῆσαι: [4.1g] οὐ τηρήσω δέ, ἐὰν ἀγανακτῶ πρὸς τὰ γινόμενα."

4.1b ἐγκρουομένους. Boter reads ἐνσειομένους.
4.1e ἐμποδών. Boter reads ἐμποδίον.

[5.1a] Ταράσσει τοὺς ἀνθρώπους οὐ τὰ πράγματα, ἀλλὰ τὰ περὶ τῶν πραγμάτων δόγματα: [5.1b] οἷον ὁ θάνατος οὐδὲν δεινόν (ἐπεὶ καὶ Σωκράτει ἂν ἐφαίνετο), ἀλλὰ τὸ δόγμα τὸ περὶ τοῦ θανάτου, διότι δεινόν, ἐκεῖνο τὸ δεινόν ἐστιν. [5.1c] ὅταν οὖν ἐμποδιζώμεθα ἢ ταρασσώμεθα ἢ λυπώμεθα, μηδέποτε ἄλλον αἰτιώμεθα, ἀλλ᾽ ἑαυτούς, τοῦτ᾽ ἔστι τὰ ἑαυτῶν δόγματα. [5.1d] ἀπαιδεύτου ἔργον τὸ ἄλλοις ἐγκαλεῖν, ἐφ᾽ οἷς αὐτὸς πράσσει κακῶς: [5.1e] ἠργμένου παιδεύεσθαι τὸ ἑαυτῷ: [5.1f] πεπαιδευμένου τὸ μήτε ἄλλῳ μήτε ἑαυτῷ.

5.1b ὁ θάνατος. Boter omits the article ὁ

Optional Questions

Q12. Line 4.1a. What are some other words that could be used for the word ἅπτεσθαί in the phrase Ὅταν ἅπτεσθαί τινος ἔργου μέλλῃς?

Q13. Line 4.1a How would you translate the phrase ὁποῖόν ἐστι τὸ ἔργον? Give an explanation of what ὁποῖόν entails.

Q14. Line 4.1b Parse ἀπίῃς. What would the aorist, present and future indicative and/or subjunctive forms be?

Q15. Line 4.1b πρόβαλλε. Julien Villeneuva (his translation of the Enchirdion is available at www.methexis.org) has the following note: 2. The verb ‘προβάλλω also has a ‘defensive’ connotation in this context, hard to render in translation. The Stoic puts the thought in front of his/her mind to protect himself against erroneous judgments as a hoplite puts a shield in front of himself to guard oneself against being injured. Later uses of the verb ‘THREW’ (to ‘keep’, in the sense of ‘watching’, ‘guarding’) confirm that Epictetus intends this double- entendre. Do you agree with his comment?

Q16. Line 4.1b. Give your translation and explanation for each of the following groups of people: τοὺς ἀπορραίνοντας, τοὺς ἐγκρουομένους, τοὺς λοιδοροῦντας, τοὺς κλέπτοντας, τοὺς ἐνσεισομένους.

Q17. Line 4.1f What lemma is ἤθελον from. How do you explain the initial ἤ augment. What other words show the same variation?

Q18. Line 5.1b. The phrase οἷον ὁ θάνατος οὐδὲν δεινόν begins with the word οἷος. Why is it in the accusative? Can you translate the phrase. What is the best translation for the word οἷον? Can you find any reference in LSJ or Smyth which parallels the usage here?

Q19 Line 5.1b. Translate the phrase διότι δεινόν, ἐκεῖνο τὸ δεινόν ἐστιν. Does the word διότι in the phrase διότι δεινόν, ἐκεῖνο τὸ δεινόν ἐστιν introduce a 'saying' or does it mean its normal meaning of 'because'. Note: there are no quotation marks around the following text.

Q20 Line 5.1d and 5.1e Translate the sentences:
[5.1d] ἀπαιδεύτου ἔργον τὸ ἄλλοις ἐγκαλεῖν, ἐφ᾽ οἷς αὐτὸς πράσσει κακῶς:
[5.1e] ἠργμένου παιδεύεσθαι τὸ ἑαυτῷ:
[5.1f] πεπαιδευμένου τὸ μήτε ἄλλῳ μήτε ἑαυτῷ.

Q21 Section 5.1. Parse ἀπαιδεύτου, ἠργμένου and πεπαιδευμένου. What 3 classes of people are compared?

Other questions some may have:

 

Reading 3 - Advanced Reading 1 Discourses 2.23.8-14
Text
Questions
Notes
Apparatus
Answers
Vocabulary

Discourses 2.23.8: What is the προαίρεσις. (This passage is selected by Thurot (Mots- p. 66) as the things to consider when you attempt to translate this word.)

[2.23.8] πῶς οὖν δύναταί τις ἄλλη δύναμις κρείσσων εἶναι ταύτης, ἣ καὶ ταῖς λοιπαῖς διακόνοις χρῆται καὶ δοκιμάζει αὐτὴ ἕκαστα καὶ ἀποφαίνεται; [9] τίς γὰρ ἐκείνων οἶδεν, τίς ἐστιν αὐτὴ καὶ πόσου ἀξία; τίς ἐκείνων οἶδεν, ὁπότε δεῖ χρῆσθαι αὐτῇ καὶ πότε μή; τίς ἐστιν ἡ ἀνοίγουσα καὶ κλείουσα τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς καὶ ἀφ' ὧν δεῖ ἀποστρέφουσα, τοῖς δὲ προσάγουσα; ἡ ὁρατική; οὔ, ἀλλ' ἡ προαιρετική τίς ἡ τὰ ὦτα ἐπικλείουσα καὶ ἀνοίγουσα; [10] τίς, καθ' ἣν περίεργοι καὶ πευθῆνες ἢ πάλιν ἀκίνητοι ὑπὸ λόγου; ἡ ἀκουστική; [11] οὐκ ἄλλη ἢ ἡ προαιρετικὴ δύναμις. εἶτ' αὐτὴ ἰδοῦσα, ὅτι ἐν τυφλαῖς καὶ κωφαῖς ταῖς ἄλλαις ἁπάσαις δυνάμεσίν ἐστι μηδέ τι ἄλλο συνορᾶν δυναμέναις πλὴν αὐτὰ ἐκεῖνα τὰ ἔργα, ἐφ' οἷς τεταγμέναι εἰσὶ διακονεῖν ταύτῃ καὶ ὑπηρετεῖν, αὐτὴ δὲ μόνη ὀξὺ βλέπει καὶ τάς τ' ἄλλας καθορᾷ, πόσου ἑκάστη ἀξία, καὶ αὑτήν, μέλλει ἡμῖν ἄλλο τι ἀποφαίνεσθαι τὸ κράτιστον εἶναι ἢ αὐτήν; [12] καὶ τί ποιεῖ ἄλλο ὀφθαλμὸς ἀνοιχθεὶς ἢ ὁρᾷ; εἰ δὲ δεῖ τὴν τοῦ τινος ἰδεῖν γυναῖκα καὶ πῶς, τίς λέγει; [13] ἡ προαιρετική. εἰ δὲ δεῖ πιστεῦσαι τοῖς λεχθεῖσιν ἢ ἀπιστῆσαι καὶ πιστεύσαντα ἐρεθισθῆναι ἢ μή, τίς λέγει; [14] οὐχ ἡ προαιρετική;

 

Long Translation

How then can any other faculty be more powerful than this, which uses the rest as ministers and itself proves each and pronounces about them? for which of them knows what itself is, and what is its own value? which of them knows when it ought to employ itself and when not? what faculty is it which opens and closes the eyes, and turns them away from objects to which it ought not to apply them and does apply them to other objects? Is it the faculty of vision? No; but it is the faculty of the will. What is that faculty which closes and opens the ears? what is that by which they are curious and inquisitive, or on the contrary unmoved by what is said? is it the faculty of hearing? It is no other than the faculty of the will.4 Will this faculty then, seeing that it is amidst all the other faculties which are blind and dumb and unable to see any thing else except the very acts for which they are appointed in order to minister to this (faculty) and serve it, but this faculty alone sees sharp and sees what is the value of each of the rest; will this faculty declare to us that any thing else is the best, or that itself is? And what else does the eye do when it is opened than see? But whether we ought to look on the wife of a certain person, and in what manner, who tells us? The faculty of the will. And whether we ought to believe what is said or not to believe it, and if we do believe, whether we ought to be moved by it or not, who tells us? Is it not the faculty of the will?

 

Reading 3 - Advanced Reading 2 Discourses 0.0
Text
Questions
Notes
Apparatus
Answers
Vocabulary

None given at the present time

 

Collected Notes on the text.

The order of the notes may be out of order in relation to the text. The following notes are collected from various commentaries, translations, etc. They are classified as to what type (e.g. grammar, vocabulary, meaning of the text, etc.), along with the source. Notes without sources are added by this author. Notes will be added as the weeks progress.

Section 3.1 Notes click to expand    []

 

 

Section 4.1 Notes click to expand    []

 

 

Section 5.1a Notes click to expand    []

 

 

Section 5.1b Notes click to expand    []

 

Sentences numbered for sending in the translations

Reading 3: Chapters 3.1-5.1

Basic Reading
[0301a] Ἐφ᾽ ἑκάστου τῶν ψυχαγωγούντων ἢ χρείαν παρεχόντων ἢ στεργομένων μέμνησο ἐπιλέγειν, ὁποῖόν ἐστιν, ἀπὸ τῶν σμικροτάτων ἀρξάμενος:
[0301b] ἂν χύτραν στέργῃς, ὅτι "χύτραν στέργω".
[0301c] κατεαγείσης γὰρ αὐτῆς οὐ ταραχθήσῃ:
[0301d] ἂν παιδίον σαυτοῦ καταφιλῇς ἢ γυναῖκα, ὅτι ἄνθρωπον καταφιλεῖς:
[0301e] ἀποθανόντος γὰρ οὐ ταραχθήσῃ.

Optional Reading 1
[0401a] Ὅταν ἅπτεσθαί τινος ἔργου μέλλῃς, ὑπομίμνῃσκε σεαυτόν, ὁποῖόν ἐστι τὸ ἔργον.
[0401b] ἐὰν λουσόμενος ἀπίῃς, πρόβαλλε σεαυτῷ τὰ γινόμενα ἐν βαλανείῳ, τοὺς ἀπορραίνοντας, τοὺς ἐγκρουομένους, τοὺς λοιδοροῦντας, τοὺς κλέπτοντας.
[0401c] καὶ οὕτως ἀσφαλέστερον ἅψῃ τοῦ ἔργου, ἐὰν ἐπιλέγῃς εὐθὺς ὅτι "λούσασθαι θέλω καὶ τὴν ἐμαυτοῦ προαίρεσιν κατὰ φύσιν ἔχουσαν τηρῆσαι".
[0401d] καὶ ὡσαύτως ἐφ᾽ ἑκάστου ἔργου.
[0401e] οὕτω γὰρ ἄν τι πρὸς τὸ λούσασθαι γένηται ἐμποδών, πρόχειρον ἔσται διότι
[0401f] "ἀλλ᾽ οὐ τοῦτο ἤθελον μόνον, ἀλλὰ καὶ τὴν ἐμαυτοῦ προαίρεσιν κατὰ φύσιν ἔχουσαν τηρῆσαι:
[0401g] οὐ τηρήσω δέ, ἐὰν ἀγανακτῶ πρὸς τὰ γινόμενα."

Optional Reading 2
[0501a] Ταράσσει τοὺς ἀνθρώπους οὐ τὰ πράγματα, ἀλλὰ τὰ περὶ τῶν πραγμάτων δόγματα:
[0501b] οἷον ὁ θάνατος οὐδὲν δεινόν (ἐπεὶ καὶ Σωκράτει ἂν ἐφαίνετο), ἀλλὰ τὸ δόγμα τὸ περὶ τοῦ θανάτου, διότι δεινόν, ἐκεῖνο τὸ δεινόν ἐστιν.
[0501c] ὅταν οὖν ἐμποδιζώμεθα ἢ ταρασσώμεθα ἢ λυπώμεθα, μηδέποτε ἄλλον αἰτιώμεθα, ἀλλ᾽ ἑαυτούς, τοῦτ᾽ ἔστι τὰ ἑαυτῶν δόγματα.
[0501d] ἀπαιδεύτου ἔργον τὸ ἄλλοις ἐγκαλεῖν, ἐφ᾽ οἷς αὐτὸς πράσσει κακῶς:
[0501e] ἠργμένου παιδεύεσθαι τὸ ἑαυτῷ:
[0501f] πεπαιδευμένου τὸ μήτε ἄλλῳ μήτε ἑαυτῷ.

 

Table of Words

The local gloss is context-specific. The word-link and lemma-link are linked to the Perseus Hopper vocabulary tool. I have gone through the Greek lemma and verified them for accuracy - but there may still be some errors. Many of the definitions have been taken from the following translations: Mattheson, Boter, White, Oldfather and Long. If you have a better suggestion for a word, send in the word number, Greek word and suggested gloss, and I will add it into the vocabulary list.

A note of caution: Perseus does not always work as expected. The links are betacode which works better than sending in Greek Unicode lookups. But sometimes it still will not work. In addition, Perseus is often slow - if you see it cranking and cranking, try later, the server is too busy. An example of unexpected results is as follows: the neuter plural form ἀπαραπόδιστα returns 'not found'; the root lemma ἀπαραπόδιστος brings up its own correct entry. Some words are only listed in the Middle LSJ, not the main LSJ (e.g. οὐδέπω). So if you look up οὐδέπω in the Archimedes Harvard LSJ or your own personal copy, you won't find it.

The columns for vocabulary frequency are compiled from Perseus' Max frequency for the Enchiridion (EnchX) and all of Epictetus' works (EpicX including the Enchiridion). The New Testament frequencies are from Tischendorf's NT as provided by MorphGnt.org. Words are linked on betacode, but some lemmas do not link correctly (a problem that will be fixed over time), thus there are occasionally NTX freqencies that are missing or partial. When comparing the frequency of the various works, you should remember the Enchiridion (4983 words) is about the same length as the book of Hebrews (4953 words) and all Epictetus' writings (The Discourses - 75,177 words, Fragments - 4023 words,and Enchiridion - 4983 words; grand total - 84183) are 60% of the length of the New Testament (138,019 words). Although both the Epictus' works and the New Testament books are different in content and author, if you multiply the Epictetus frequency by 1.6 (EpicX x 1.6) you can come up with a comparable usage between the two works.

 

 

qryEnchiridionWords_ReadingsLemma
WordID Ref Greek Word WordLink LemmaLink Local Gloss Construction POS Parsing EnchX EpicX NTX
353 3.1 ἐφ᾽ ἐφ᾽
ἐπί
for, with respect to, with


77 642 890
354 3.1 ἑκάστου ἑκάστου
ἑκάστος
each; ἐφ᾽ἑκάστου τῶν in the case of everything...





355 3.1 τῶν τῶν

the


502 8830 19787
356 3.1 ψυχαγωγούντων ψυχαγωγούντων
ψυχαγωγέω
to attract, attractive, entertain, allure, to distract


1 4
357 3.1

or


66 915 346
358 3.1 χρείαν χρείαν
χρεία
need; use


2 58 49
359 3.1 παρεχόντων παρεχόντων
παρέχω
to provide; παρέχειν χρείαν to be useful, offer an advantage


1 43 16
360 3.1

or


66 915 346
361 3.1 στεργομένων στεργομένων
στέργω
to be fond of, pass. to be appreciated


3 12
362 3.1 μέμνησο μέμνησο
μιμνήσκω
remember


20 84
363 3.1 ἐπιλέγειν ἐπιλέγειν
ἐπιλέγω
to say; μέμνησο ἐπιλέγειν recall to mind


5 7 1
364 3.1 ὁποῖόν ὁποῖόν
ὁποῖος
what kind, what sort of thing, ὁποῖόν ἐστιν 'what is its nature'


6 11 5
365 3.1 ἐστιν ἐστιν
εἰμί
to be, is


132 2174 2461
366 3.1 ἀπὸ ἀπὸ
ἀπό
from


14 166 640
367 3.1 τῶν τῶν

the


502 8830 19787
368 3.1 σμικροτάτων σμικροτάτων
μικρός
least, smallest things, 'least little things', the most trifling


2 59 46
369 3.1 ἀρξάμενος ἀρξάμενος
ἄρχω
to begin, to start


8 76 87
370 3.1 ἂν ἂν
ἄν
if


48 730 165
371 3.1 χύτραν χύτραν
χύτρα
jug, earthenware pot, earthen jar


2 9
372 3.1 στέργῃς στέργῃς
στέργω
to be fond of, to like


3 12
373 3.1 ὅτι ὅτι
ὅτι
(quotation marks introducing a quotation)


68 849 1299
374 3.1 χύτραν χύτραν
χύτρα
jug, earthenware pot


2 9
375 3.1 στέργω στέργω
στέργω
to be fond of, to like


3 12
376 3.1 κατεαγείσης κατεαγείσης
κατάγνυμι
to break; pass. be broken


3 7 4
377 3.1 γὰρ γὰρ
γάρ
for


49 781 1036
378 3.1 αὐτῆς αὐτῆς
αὐτός
it


80 1357 5568
379 3.1 οὐ οὐ
οὐ
not


85 1681 1626
380 3.1 ταραχθήσῃ ταραχθήσῃ
ταράσσω
pass. to be upset, disturbed, be confounded


8 39 17
381 3.1 ἂν ἂν
ἄν
if


48 730 165
382 3.1 παιδίον παιδίον
παιδίον
child


5 69 52
383 3.1 σαυτοῦ σαυτοῦ
σεαυτοῦ
your





384 3.1 καταφιλῇς καταφιλῇς
καταφιλέω
to kiss


2 14 6
385 3.1

or


66 915 346
386 3.1 γυναῖκα γυναῖκα
γυνή
wife


8 76 219
387 3.1 ὅτι ὅτι
ὅτι
that; introduces a quotation of direct speech


68 849 1299
388 3.1 ἄνθρωπον ἄνθρωπον
ἄνθρωπος
human being


7 373 550
389 3.1 καταφιλεῖς καταφιλεῖς
καταφιλέω
to kiss


2 14 6
390 3.1 ἀποθανόντος ἀποθανόντος
ἀποθνήσκω
to die


6 99
391 3.1 γὰρ γὰρ
γάρ
for (postpositive - moved after other words)


49 781 1036
392 3.1 οὐ οὐ
οὐ
not


85 1681 1626
393 3.1 ταραχθήσῃ ταραχθήσῃ
ταράσσω
to be upset, be distressed, disturbed, confounded


8 39 17
394 4.1 Ὅταν Ὅταν
ὅταν
when


31 266 123
395 4.1 ἅπτεσθαί ἅπτεσθαί
ἅπτω
to undertake; ἅπτεσθαί τινος ἔργου to put the hand to some undertaking, take in hand


7 32 40
396 4.1 τινος τινος
τις
some


163 3876
397 4.1 ἔργου ἔργου
ἔργα
action, task, untertaking





398 4.1 μέλλῃς μέλλῃς
μέλλω
to be about to + inf., to propose


3 58 110
399 4.1 ὑπομίμνῃσκε ὑπομίμνῃσκε
ὑπομιμνήσκω
remind


1 9
400 4.1 σεαυτόν σεαυτόν
σεαυτοῦ
yourself





401 4.1 ὁποῖόν ὁποῖόν
ὁποῖος
what sort, what the nature


6 11 5
402 4.1 ἐστι ἐστι
εἰμί
is


132 2174 2461
403 4.1 τὸ τὸ





502 8830 19787
404 4.1 ἔργον ἔργον
ἔργον
action, business, undertaking; ὁποῖόν τὸ ἔργον 'what sort of action'





405 4.1 ἐὰν ἐὰν
ἐάν
if


85 817 333
406 4.1 λουσόμενος λουσόμενος
λούω
to wash, to bathe, go to a bath


4 22 5
407 4.1 ἀπίῃς ἀπίῃς
ἄπειμι
to go out; λουσόμενος ἀπίῃς 'to go out for a bath'





408 4.1 πρόβαλλε πρόβαλλε
προβάλλω
put before; πρόβαλλε σεαυτῷ 'put before your mind', bring to mind


3 13 2
409 4.1 σεαυτῷ σεαυτῷ
σεαυτοῦ
your





410 4.1 τὰ τὰ

the


502 8830 19787
411 4.1 γινόμενα γινόμενα
γίνομαι
to happen; τὰ γινόμενα 'what happens'





412 4.1 ἐν ἐν
ἐν
at


49 629 2743
413 4.1 βαλανείῳ βαλανείῳ
βαλανεῖον
a public bath, baths, bathing establishment


2 13
414 4.1 τοὺς τοὺς

the


502 8830 19787
415 4.1 ἀπορραίνοντας ἀπορραίνοντας
ἀπορραίνω
to splash, squirting of water


1 1
416 4.1 τοὺς τοὺς

the


502 8830 19787
417 4.1 ἐγκρουομένους ἐγκρουομένους
ἐγκρούω
to jostle, beating


1 1
418 4.1 τοὺς τοὺς

the


502 8830 19787
419 4.1 λοιδοροῦντας λοιδοροῦντας
λοιδορέω
to insult, be abusive, vilify, use bad language


8 42 4
420 4.1 τοὺς τοὺς

the


502 8830 19787
421 4.1 κλέπτοντας κλέπτοντας
κλέπτω
to steal, rob, to thieve


2 12 13
422 4.1 καὶ καὶ
καί
and


206 4196 8977
423 4.1 οὕτως οὕτως
οὕτως
that way, thus, after this fashion


33 406
424 4.1 ἀσφαλέστερον ἀσφαλέστερον
ἀσφαλής
more securely, more safely


2 30 5
425 4.1 ἅψῃ ἅψῃ
ἅπτω
(+ gen.) ἅψῃ τοῦ ἔργου 'to undertake the action'


7 32 40
426 4.1 τοῦ τοῦ

the


502 8830 19787
427 4.1 ἔργου ἔργου
ἔργα
action





428 4.1 ἐὰν ἐὰν
ἐάν
if


85 817 333
429 4.1 ἐπιλέγῃς ἐπιλέγῃς
ἐπιλέγω
to say


5 7 1
430 4.1 εὐθὺς εὐθὺς
εὐθύς
from the start


8 68 8
431 4.1 ὅτι ὅτι
ὅτι
recitatum (quotation marks)


68 849 1299
432 4.1 λούσασθαι λούσασθαι
λούω
to take a bath, to bathe


4 22 5
433 4.1 θέλω θέλω
ἐθέλω
to wish, to intend


33 484
434 4.1 καὶ καὶ
καί
and, also


206 4196 8977
435 4.1 τὴν τὴν

the


502 8830 19787
436 4.1 ἐμαυτοῦ ἐμαυτοῦ
ἐμαυτοῦ
mine, my


4 49 37
437 4.1 προαίρεσιν προαίρεσιν
προαίρεσις
choices, moral character, moral nature


6 80
438 4.1 κατὰ κατὰ
κατά
in accordance with, in harmony, according to


15 221 471
439 4.1 φύσιν φύσιν
φύσις
nature


15 192 14
440 4.1 ἔχουσαν ἔχουσαν
ἔχω
to have, to hold


37 732 707
441 4.1 τηρῆσαι τηρῆσαι
τηρέω
to keep


5 53 71
442 4.1 καὶ καὶ
καί
and


206 4196 8977
443 4.1 ὡσαύτως ὡσαύτως
ὡσαύτως
likewise, similarly


3 30 17
444 4.1 ἐφ᾽ ἐφ᾽
ἐπί
for, with


77 642 890
445 4.1 ἑκάστου ἑκάστου
ἑκάστος
each, every





446 4.1 ἔργου ἔργου
ἔργα
action, occasion; ἐφ᾽ ἑκάστου ἔργου with every undertaking





447 4.1 οὕτω οὕτω
οὕτως
that way, thus


33 406
448 4.1 γὰρ γὰρ
γάρ
for


49 781 1036
449 4.1 ἄν ἄν
ἄν
if


48 730 165
450 4.1 τι τι
τις
something


163 3876
451 4.1 πρὸς πρὸς
πρός
with


45 649 697
452 4.1 τὸ τὸ

the


502 8830 19787
453 4.1 λούσασθαι λούσασθαι
λούω
bathing τὸ λούσασθαι

4 22 5
454 4.1 γένηται γένηται
γίνομαι
to happen





455 4.1 ἐμποδών ἐμποδών
ἐμπόδιον
adv. (cf. ἐμπόδιος, ον) γένηται ἐμποδών to become a hindrance, to hinder, to cross one





456 4.1 πρόχειρον πρόχειρον
πρόχειρος
at hand; πρόχειρον ἔσται διότι you will say readily, be ready to say


6 27
457 4.1 ἔσται ἔσται
εἰμί
it will


132 2174 2461
458 4.1 διότι διότι
διότι
that (untranslated introducing a quotation)


6 9 25
459 4.1 ἀλλ᾽ ἀλλ᾽
ἀλλά
well, O well ἀλλ᾽ οὐ μόνον ' not only

55 953 635
460 4.1 οὐ οὐ
οὐ
not


85 1681 1626
461 4.1 τοῦτο τοῦτο
οὗτος
this


78 1657 1380
462 4.1 ἤθελον ἤθελον
ἐθέλω
to want


33 484
463 4.1 μόνον μόνον
μόνος
only


15 235 114
464 4.1 ἀλλὰ ἀλλὰ
ἀλλά
but ἀλλὰ καὶ 'but also'

55 953 635
465 4.1 καὶ καὶ
καί
also


206 4196 8977
466 4.1 τὴν τὴν

the


502 8830 19787
467 4.1 ἐμαυτοῦ ἐμαυτοῦ
ἐμαυτοῦ
my


4 49 37
468 4.1 προαίρεσιν προαίρεσιν
προαίρεσις
choices, moral character, moral purpose


6 80
469 4.1 κατὰ κατὰ
κατά
according to, in accordance with


15 221 471
470 4.1 φύσιν φύσιν
φύσις
nature


15 192 14
471 4.1 ἔχουσαν ἔχουσαν
ἔχω
to keep; κατὰ φύσιν ἔχουσαν holding in accordance with nature


37 732 707
472 4.1 τηρῆσαι τηρῆσαι
τηρέω
to keep


5 53 71
473 4.1 οὐ οὐ
οὐ
not


85 1681 1626
474 4.1 τηρήσω τηρήσω
τηρέω
to keep


5 53 71
475 4.1 δέ δέ
δέ
but


109 1649 2781
476 4.1 ἐὰν ἐὰν
ἐάν
if


85 817 333
477 4.1 ἀγανακτῶ ἀγανακτῶ
ἀγανακτέω
to get irritated, vexed


2 29 7
478 4.1 πρὸς πρὸς
πρός
with


45 649 697
479 4.1 τὰ τὰ

the


502 8830 19787
480 4.1 γινόμενα γινόμενα
γίνομαι
τὰ γινόμενα the things that happen, the circumstances, what is going on, what occurs





481 5.1 Ταράσσει Ταράσσει
ταράσσω
to get upset, to trouble


8 39 17
482 5.1 τοὺς τοὺς

the


502 8830 19787
483 5.1 ἀνθρώπους ἀνθρώπους
ἄνθρωπος
τοὺς ἀνθρώπους people


7 373 550
484 5.1 οὐ οὐ
οὐ
not οὐ τὰ...

85 1681 1626
485 5.1 τὰ τὰ

the


502 8830 19787
486 5.1 πράγματα πράγματα
πράγμα
τὰ πράγματα what happens





487 5.1 ἀλλὰ ἀλλὰ
ἀλλά
but ἀλλὰ τὰ...

55 953 635
488 5.1 τὰ τὰ

the


502 8830 19787
489 5.1 περὶ περὶ
περί
on, about


30 421 335
490 5.1 τῶν τῶν

the


502 8830 19787
491 5.1 πραγμάτων πραγμάτων
πράγμα
περὶ τῶν πραγμάτων on what happens





492 5.1 δόγματα δόγματα
δόγμα
opinions (pl), judgements


6 132 5
493 5.1 οἷον οἷον
ὅς
for instance, for example, thus


37 618 1404
494 5.1

the (sometimes untranslated in English)


502 8830 19787
495 5.1 θάνατος θάνατος
θάνατος
death


5 64 120
496 5.1 οὐδὲν οὐδὲν
οὐδείς
nothing


33 445 235
497 5.1 δεινόν δεινόν
δεινός
to be feared, dreadful, terrible


4 25
498 5.1 ἐπεὶ ἐπεὶ
ἐπεί
because; ἐπεὶ καὶ or else


2 76 26
499 5.1 καὶ καὶ
καί
even


206 4196 8977
500 5.1 Σωκράτει Σωκράτει
Σωκράτης
Socrates


7 74
501 5.1 ἂν ἂν
ἄν
would


48 730 165
502 5.1 ἐφαίνετο ἐφαίνετο
φαίνω
ἂν ἐφαίνετο it would have appeared


11 110 32
503 5.1 ἀλλὰ ἀλλὰ
ἀλλά
but


55 953 635
504 5.1 τὸ τὸ

the


502 8830 19787
505 5.1 δόγμα δόγμα
δόγμα
opinion, judgement


6 132 5
506 5.1 τὸ τὸ

the


502 8830 19787
507 5.1 περὶ περὶ
περί
about


30 421 335
508 5.1 τοῦ τοῦ





502 8830 19787
509 5.1 θανάτου θανάτου
θάνατος
death


5 64 120
510 5.1 διότι διότι
διότι
since, that


6 9 25
511 5.1 δεινόν δεινόν
δεινός
feared, terrible, dreadful


4 25
512 5.1 ἐκεῖνο ἐκεῖνο
ἐκεῖνος
that


23 442 240
513 5.1 τὸ τὸ

the


502 8830 19787
514 5.1 δεινόν δεινόν
δεινός
feared, terrible, dreadful


4 25
515 5.1 ἐστιν ἐστιν
εἰμί
is


132 2174 2461
516 5.1 ὅταν ὅταν
ὅταν
whenever


31 266 123
517 5.1 οὖν οὖν
οὖν
therefore


40 778 489
518 5.1 ἐμποδιζώμεθα ἐμποδιζώμεθα
ἐμποδίζω
to be hampered, hindered


4 33
519 5.1

or


66 915 346
520 5.1 ταρασσώμεθα ταρασσώμεθα
ταράσσω
pass.: be upset, troubled, disturbed, confounded


8 39 17
521 5.1

or


66 915 346
522 5.1 λυπώμεθα λυπώμεθα
λυπέω
pass.: grieved, distressed


1 25 26
523 5.1 μηδέποτε μηδέποτε
μηδέποτε
never


4 31 1
524 5.1 ἄλλον ἄλλον
ἄλλος
someone else


32 663 155
525 5.1 αἰτιώμεθα αἰτιώμεθα
αἰτιάομαι
to blame


1 7
526 5.1 ἀλλ᾽ ἀλλ᾽
ἀλλά
but


55 953 635
527 5.1 ἑαυτούς ἑαυτούς
ἑαυτός
ourselves





528 5.1 τοῦτ᾽ τοῦτ᾽
οὗτος
that


78 1657 1380
529 5.1 ἔστι ἔστι
εἰμί
is


132 2174 2461
530 5.1 τὰ τὰ

the


502 8830 19787
531 5.1 ἑαυτῶν ἑαυτῶν
ἑαυτός
our





532 5.1 δόγματα δόγματα
δόγμα
opinions, judgements


6 132 5
533 5.1 ἀπαιδεύτου ἀπαιδεύτου
ἀπαιδευτος
uneducated, untaught substantivally w/o article




534 5.1 ἔργον ἔργον
ἔργα
deed, action





535 5.1 τὸ τὸ

the


502 8830 19787
536 5.1 ἄλλοις ἄλλοις
ἄλλος
others


32 663 155
537 5.1 ἐγκαλεῖν ἐγκαλεῖν
ἐγκαλέω
to blame, accuse


5 42 7
538 5.1 ἐφ᾽ ἐφ᾽
ἐπί
at


77 642 890
539 5.1 οἷς οἷς
ὅς
others


37 618 1404
540 5.1 αὐτὸς αὐτὸς
αὐτός
he himself


80 1357 5568
541 5.1 πράσσει πράσσει
πράσσω
does


4 65 39
542 5.1 κακῶς κακῶς
κακῶς
badly πράσσει κακῶς to fail at, to fare ill, to suffer misfortune





543 5.1 ἠργμένου ἠργμένου
ἄρχω
beginning, starting (from ἄρχω) substantivally w/o article
XPPMGS 8 76 87
544 5.1 παιδεύεσθαι παιδεύεσθαι
παιδεύω
pass. to be instructed, be educated, be taught


2 28 13
545 5.1 τὸ τὸ





502 8830 19787
546 5.1 ἑαυτῷ ἑαυτῷ
ἑαυτός
himself





547 5.1 πεπαιδευμένου πεπαιδευμένου
παιδεύω
pf. to be complete in learning or education, fully educated substantivally w/o article

2 28 13
548 5.1 τὸ τὸ





502 8830 19787
549 5.1 μήτε μήτε
μήτε
neither μήτε...μήτε

6 76 34
550 5.1 ἄλλῳ ἄλλῳ
ἄλλος
others, someone else


32 663 155
551 5.1 μήτε μήτε
μήτε
nor μήτε...μήτε

6 76 34
552 5.1 ἑαυτῷ ἑαυτῷ
ἑαυτός
himself, one's own self