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Reading 2: March 31

Chapters 1.5-2.2
Translations Due Sunday, April 6 (midnight CST)
Grammar Questions Due Tuesday, April 8 (midnight CST)

Reading Selections by Group
Level Book Sections Title
Questions
Perseus
Notes
Basic
Enchiridion Test Every Impression
Optional 1
Enchiridion The promise of desire and aversion
Optional 2
Enchiridion Withdraw aversion and desire  
Advanced 1
Discourses

3.23.30

 

A Philosopher's school is like a doctor's surgery
NA
 
NA
Advanced 2
Discourses  3.2.1 Why study philosophy?
NA
 
NA

 

Other Aids
Greek Sentences
Instructions for sending in translations  
Audio File
Enchiridion 1.5-2.2 recording using Erasmian pronunciation. 1.5   2.1   2.2
Enchiridin 1.1-1.5 recording using 'Living Koine' pronunciation (Right click file name and select "save file as" for Microsoft Windows OS.)
Greek Text (Pdf file of the reading)

Schweighauser's 1799 Reading 02 (Schenkl's Source ) with Wolf's Latin Translation. A 3 page pdf file.

Schenkl's 1916 Reading 02 (Text used by this group and Perseus). A 2 page pdf file.

Thurot's 1903 Reading 02 (French with Greek notes and commentary).  A 3 page pdf file.

Vocabulary
Vocabulary of the entire Enchiridion with frequency statistics and glosses Special vocabulary: a table of the 100+ words that Epictetus uses frequently or in a special sense.

Epictetus Educational System

(Pictures wanted of ancient schools - philosophers, etc.)

What was it like to be in a Stoic educational School? Who were in Epictetus' classes? Did you sit or stand? Were there desks? What did they write with, quills and ink or wax tablets and a stylus? More importantly, What did they learn. Stoics as a school had three areas of traditional study: Logic, Physics, and Ethics. Most scholars assume Epictetus included logic as part of his regular curriculum.

But Epictetus seldom talks about Logic or Physics. He talks mainly about ethics. The young men who came to Epictetus' school in Nikopolis were likely to become officials in the Roman or local governments. Most were in their late teens to early twenties. So it makes sense that Epictetus talks about riches, holding office and having power, because it was just the sort of things to which many of the young men in his σχολή aspired.

One of the 'typical' aspiring students to whom Epictetus lectured was Lucian Arrius Flavius Xenophon (better known to most as Arrian). Arrian was one of Epictetus most inspired students. He wrote down notes from Epictetus' lectures and later compiled them into what we know today as the Discourses and Enchiridion. He was governor of Cappadocia, governor of Achaea and a close friend of the Emperor Hadrian, but, he is best known for being a military historian.

Epictetus believes in the Stoic principles. The supreme Stoic principle is 'Live in accordance with nature.' (cf. Seddon p38).

Of course, you will have to be able to decide 'what is in accordance with nature' and 'what things are against nature.' That is in addition of knowing what you can or can not do in life (what's up to us and not). Yes, the students in his class did study logic - you had to be able to make clear and thoughtful decisions. But what gets people into trouble in life (or keeps them out of trouble) is not logic, but controlling their choices, containing their desires and learning to control their passions.

The First Three Step Plan

Epictetus came up with one of the first Three Step Plans (most often called the three topoi). It is his unique twist on how best to become a stoic. The steps are:

  1. Control your desires (both what you desire and what you dislike)
  2. Control your choices (you have to know what you can and cannot do along with what you should and should not do, you must choose to do or not do things based on the right criteria.)
  3. Control your impressions (what we think about situations, how we evaluate them, false assumptions, etc.)

THERE are three things (topics, τόποι) in which a man ought to exercise himself who would be wise and good.2 The first concerns the desires and the aversions, that a man may not fail to get what he desires, and that he may not fall into that which he does not desire.3 The second concerns the movements (towards an object) and the movements from an object, and generally in doing what a man ought to do, that he may act according to order, to reason, and not carelessly. The third thing concerns freedom from deception and rashness in judgment, and generally it concerns the assents (συγκαταθέσεις).

Of these topics the chief and the most urgent is that which relates to the affects (τὰ πάθη, perturbations); for an affect is produced in no other way than by a failing to obtain that which a man desires or falling into that which a man would wish to avoid. This is that which brings in per- turbations, disorders, bad fortune, misfortunes, sorrows, lamentations, and envy; that which makes men envious and jealous; and by these causes we are unable even to listen to the precepts of reason. The second topic concerns the duties of a man; for I ought not to be free from affects (ἀπαθῆ) like a statue, but I ought to maintain the relations (σχέσεις) natural and acquired, as a pious man, as a son, as a father, as a citizen. (Discourses 3.2.1-4 translation by George Long)

These three areas are formally called the 'discipline of desire', the 'discipline of action' and the 'discipline of assent'. The three disciplines are how a student of Epictetus learned to become a Stoic and move from the stage of being an ἰδιώτης to becoming a Stoic προκοπτόν (beginner).

You will see all these concepts in the Reading 2: desire, nature, what's in our power, what's not in our power. Section 1.5 talks that we have to test every impression (an impression: an awareness of how something stands, both factually and evaluatively Seddon p. 37). Chapter two discusses the most important of Epictetus' topoi -- the discipline of desire.

2 x 2 = 4. The Framework of Stoic Values

In chapters 1 and 2, Epictetus talks about 'things that are in our power' and 'things that are not in our power. He also says that the things that are up to us are 'by nature'.... In Chapter 2, he talks about the things that are 'against' nature. In chapter 4.1, the last part of the framework of Stoic values is added, things the things that are 'according to nature'. These four statements create the framework Epictetus wants us to start classifying ideas, actions, feelings, deeds, thoughts, etc. So the purpose of the table below is to go back through the Enchiridion Chapter 1 and Chapter 2 and fill in the blanks - where would you put the descriptions (adjectives) and ideas, actions etc. (lists of nouns) that Epictetus lists?

The following two categories are the two antitheses Epictetus wants us to understand:

In our Power ~ Not in our Power

According to Nature ~ Against Nature

 

       
  In our Power
οὐκ ἐφ' ἡμῖν
Not in our Power
οὐκ ἐφ' ἡμῖν
 

According to Nature
κατὰ φύσιν:


?

?  
Against Nature
παρὰ φύσιν:

?

?  
       
 

Descriptive adjectives listed in the first two chapters:

Items, actions, ideas, experiences, thoughts listed in the first two chapters:

 
 

Free
unhindered
unimpeded
weak
slavish
belong to others

Opinion
Impulse
Desire
Aversion
Whatever is our own doing
Life
Health
Wealth
Reputation
Possessions
Friends

 

 
This table is being updated - use it as a starting point.

 

 

 

 

Aids to Reading the Greek

Special Words

The meanings of the LSJ lexicon do not always point out or fit the 'Stoic' use of terms. Seddon lists 16 words as being 'key' terms for this chapter. Some of them are 'Stoic specific'; most are not. As the special vocabulary page is being built, a fuller 'special lexicon' will become available to help understand the Greek word. Here are some of the brief glosses.

   
ἀναιρέω to restrain
ἀτυχέω to miss out on
ἀτυχής unfortunate
ἀφορμή repulsion
δυστυχέω to be miserable
δυστυχής miserable
ἔκκλισις aversion
ἐφ' ἡμῖν in our power
θάνατος death
νόσος disease
ὄρεξις desire
ὁρμή impulse cf. LSJ II.2
οὐκ ἐφ' ἡμῖν not in our power
παρὰ φύσιν against nature
πενία poverty
ὑπερεξαίρεσις reservation

Corrections to the Text

The Perseus text is unchanged. Both Boter and Oldfather show some variant readings. They are listed in the notes to the text sections. Schenkl's text contains the following error.

  1. 2.1 νόσον δ᾽ ἂν. Schenkl's text runs the words together νόσονδ᾽ ἂν; Perseus is correct.

 

Reading 2: Chapters 1.5-2.2

Reading 1 - Basic Group Enchiridion Chapter 1.5
Apparatus
Translation
Answers
Vocabulary

   [1.5a] εὐθὺς οὖν πάσῃ φαντασίᾳ τραχείᾳ μελέτα ἐπιλέγειν ὅτι "φαντασία εἶ καὶ οὐ πάντως τὸ φαινόμενον". [1.5b] ἔπειτα ἐξέταζε αὐτὴν καὶ δοκίμαζε τοῖς κανόσι τούτοις οἷς ἔχεις, πρώτῳ δὲ τούτῳ καὶ μάλιστα, πότερον περὶ τὰ ἐφ᾽ ἡμῖν ἐστιν ἢ περὶ τὰ οὐκ ἐφ᾽ ἡμῖν: [1.5c] κἂν περί τι τῶν οὐκ ἐφ᾽ ἡμῖν ᾖ, πρόχειρον ἔστω τὸ διότι "οὐδὲν πρὸς ἐμέ"

 

Basic Questions

Note: If you desire to get THE answer to the question and the answers to the questions suggested by the Greekstudy members, you may either view the appropriate Greekstudy email which includes the answers, or alternately (if you missed the email) send in your answers to the question(s). I'll be glad to email you the suggested answer and the answers sent in by the Greekstudy members.

Q1. Line 1.5a. μελέτα. The accent for Greek verbs is recessive and will go as far to the front of the syllable as allowed by the rules of accent (a max of 3 syllables from the end of the word). Why is the accent for μελέτα only two syllables back and not written as μέλετα? Can this rule help you keep nouns from verbs separate?

Q2. Line 1.5a φαντασία εἶ καὶ οὐ πάντως τὸ φαινόμενον. Should the word φαντασία have to agree in case, gender and number with τὸ φαινόμενον? Why doesn't it? What is the best way to translate 'οὐ πάντως τὸ φαινόμενον'?

Q3. Line 1.5b. δοκίμαζε τοῖς κανόσι τούτοις οἷς ἔχεις. To what rules is Epictetus referring? What would the term for the use of the dative κανόσι by called (cf. Wallace).

Q4. Line 1.5b. πρώτῳ δὲ τούτῳ καὶ μάλιστα. What is your favorite English translation for this phrase?

Q5. Line 1.5b. πότερον. πότερον is a correlative conjunction. Where can you find it in Smyth? Is there another word that it goes with? What is the best way to translate this word in the context?

Q6. Line 1.5c. κἂν. The word κἂν comes from what two words? How would you classify the conditional sentence according to Smyth. Give both the name of the condition and the traditional number.

Q7. Line 1.5c. τὸ διότι. What is your best explanation for the use of this phrase. Can you find a reference in any grammar or lexicon citing a similar usage?

 

Reading 2 - Optional Reading Enchiridion Chapters 2.1-2.2
Apparatus
Translation
Answers
Vocabulary

[2.1a] Μέμνησο, ὅτι ὀρέξεως ἐπαγγελία ἐπιτυχία, οὗ ὀρέγῃ, ἐκκλίσεως ἐπαγγελία τὸ μὴ περιπεσεῖν ἐκείνῳ, ὃ ἐκκλίνεται, καὶ ὁ μὲν ἐν ὀρέξει ἀποτυγχάνων ἀτυχής, ὁ δὲ ἐν ἐκκλίσει περιπίπτων δυστυχής. [2.1b] ἂν μὲν οὖν μόνα ἐκκλίνῃς τὰ παρὰ φύσιν τῶν ἐπὶ σοί, οὐδενί, ὧν ἐκκλίνεις, περιπεσῇ: νόσον δ᾽ ἂν ἐκκλίνῃς ἢ θάνατον ἢ πενίαν, δυστυχήσεις. [2.2a] ἆρον οὖν τὴν ἔκκλισιν ἀπὸ πάντων τῶν οὐκ ἐφ᾽ ἡμῖν καὶ μετάθες ἐπὶ τὰ παρὰ φύσιν τῶν ἐφ᾽ ἡμῖν. [2.2b] τὴν ὄρεξιν δὲ παντελῶς ἐπὶ τοῦ παρόντος ἄνελε: [2.2c] ἄν τε γὰρ ὀρέγῃ τῶν οὐκ ἐφ᾽ ἡμῖν τινος, ἀτυχεῖν ἀνάγκη τῶν τε ἐφ᾽ ἡμῖν, ὅσων ὀρέγεσθαι καλὸν ἄν, οὐδὲν οὐδέπω σοι πάρεστι. [2.2d]μόνῳ δὲ τῷ ὁρμᾶν καὶ ἀφορμᾶν χρῶ, κούφως μέντοι καὶ μεθ᾽ ὑπεξαιρέσεως καὶ ἀνειμένως.

 

Optional Questions

Q8. Line 2.1a. ὅτι ὀρέξεως ἐπαγγελία ἐπιτυχία. Did you find this phrase hard to translate? Boter selects the alternative reading τὸ ἐπιτυχεῖν. Is there a main verb in this sentence following ὅτι? What word parallels following the phrase ἐκκλίσεως ἐπαγγελία?

Q9. Line 2.1a. ἀποτυγχάνων ἀτυχής. (cf. 1.4b τυχὸν.... τεύξῃ). There is a term for the use of two words from the same stem used in conjunction. What is the name of that term? Where would you find it? How common was this in Greek? Is it unique to Hellenistic Greek?

Q10. Line 2.1a. ἀτυχής...δυστυχής. What is the difference between these two words? Which one is a 'worse' state to be in? Which state does Epictetus say is worse? Give your favorite translation(s) for each. Does the English word 'unlucky' come close to any of the meanings?

Q11. Chapter 2. List all the imperative forms you find in this chapter.

Q12. Line 2.1b. ἂν...ἐκκλίνῃς. Does the word ἂν = ἐάν? Is this a Hellenistic feature, or does Attic also show this feature? Where could you look to find out if it is Attic or not?

Q13. Line 2.2a. τὰ παρὰ φύσιν. Can you list the things that are παρὰ φύσιν. What is the opposite of that phrase?. Are the things that are παρὰ φύσιν 'up to us', 'not up to us' or both?

Q14. Line 2.2b. ἐπὶ τοῦ παρόντος. What phrase in section 1.4 is similar? What other ways does Greek have of saying 'for the moment'?

Q15. Line 2.2b. τὴν ὄρεξιν δὲ παντελῶς ἐπὶ τοῦ παρόντος ἄνελε. What is Epictetus talking about? Are sleep and food counted as desires? To whom is Epictetus addressing this comment?

Q16. Line 2.2c. ἄν τε γὰρ ὀρέγῃ τῶν οὐκ ἐφ᾽ ἡμῖν τινος. Does the word ὀρέγῃ have an object? If yes, what is it and why the form it is in? Does the word τινος fit into the sentence? What's the best explanation/tranlsation for the use of τινος.

Q17. Lines 2.2c-d. Translate these lines.

Q18. Line 2.2d. μόνῳ δὲ τῷ ὁρμᾶν καὶ ἀφορμᾶν χρῶ. What part of Epictetus' system (discipline) does this command refer to?

Other questions some may have:

 

Reading 2 - Advanced Reading 1 Discourses 3.2.1-5
Text
Questions
Notes
Apparatus
Answers
Vocabulary

Discourses 3.2.1-3 The Three Topoi - the first is most important

Περὶ τίνα ἀσκεῖσθαι δεῖ τὸν προκόψοντα καὶ ὅτι τῶν κυριωτάτων ἀμελοῦμεν.

Τρεῖς εἰσι τόποι, περὶ οὓς ἀσκηθῆναι δεῖ τὸν ἐσόμενον καλὸν καὶ ἀγαθόν: περὶ τὰς ὀρέξεις καὶ τὰς ἐκκλίσεις, ἵνα μήτ᾽ ὀρεγόμενος ἀποτυγχάνῃ μήτ᾽ ἐκκλίνων περιπίπτῃ: [2] περὶ τὰς ὁρμὰς καὶ ἀφορμὰς καὶ ἁπλῶς περὶ τὸ καθῆκον, ἵνα τάξει, ἵνα εὐλογίστως, ἵνα μὴ ἀμελῶς: τρίτος ἐστὶν περὶ τὴν ἀνεξαπατησίαν καὶ ἀνεικαιότητα καὶ ὅλως περὶ τὰς συγκαταθέσεις. [3] τούτων κυριώτατος καὶ μάλιστα ἐπείγων ἐστὶν περὶ τὰ πάθη: πάθος γὰρ ἄλλως οὐ γίνεται εἰ μὴ ὀρέξεως ἀποτυγχανούσης ἐκκλίσεως περιπιπτούσης. οὗτός ἐστιν ταραχάς, θορύβους, ἀτυχίας, δυστυχίας ἐπιφέρων, πένθη, οἰμωγάς, φθόνους, φθονερούς, ζηλοτύπους ποιῶν, δι᾽ ὧν οὐδ᾽ ἀκοῦσαι λόγου δυνάμεθα

 

Long's Translation 1890

In what a man ought to be exercised who has made proficiency;1 and that we neglect the chief things.

THERE are three things (topics, τόποι) in which a man ought to exercise himself who would be wise and good.2 The first concerns the desires and the aversions, that a man may not fail to get what he desires, and that he may not fall into that which he does not desire.3 The second concerns the movements (towards an object) and the movements from an object, and generally in doing what a man ought to do, that he may act according to order, to reason, and not carelessly. The third thing concerns freedom from deception and rashness in judgment, and generally it concerns the assents (συγκαταθέσεις). Of these topics the chief and the most urgent is that which relates to the affects (τὰ πάθη, perturbations); for an affect is produced in no other way than by a failing to obtain that which a man desires or falling into that which a man would wish to avoid. This is that which brings in per- turbations, disorders, bad fortune, misfortunes, sorrows, lamentations, and envy; that which makes men envious and jealous; and by these causes we are unable even to listen to the precepts of reason.

 

Reading 2 - Advanced Reading 2 Discourses 3.23.30-33
Text
Questions
Notes
Apparatus
Answers
Vocabulary

Discourses 3.23.30-32

[30] ἰατρεῖόν ἐστιν, ἄνδρες, τὸ τοῦ φιλοσόφου σχολεῖον: οὐ δεῖ ἡσθέντας ἐξελθεῖν, ἀλλ᾽ ἀλγήσαντας. ἔρχεσθε γὰρ οὐχ ὑγιεῖς, ἀλλ᾽ μὲν ὦμον ἐκβεβληκώς, δ᾽ ἀπόστημα ἔχων, δὲ σύριγγα, δὲ κεφαλαλγῶν. [31] εἶτ᾽ ἐγὼ καθίσας ὑμῖν λέγω νοημάτια καὶ ἐπιφωνημάτια, ἵν᾽ ὑμεῖς ἐπαινέσαντές με ἐξέλθητε, μὲν τὸν ὦμον ἐκφέρων οἷον εἰσήνεγκεν, δὲ τὴν κεφαλὴν ὡσαύτως ἔχουσαν, δὲ τὴν σύριγγα, δὲ τὸ ἀπόστημα; [32] εἶτα τούτου ἕνεκα ἀποδημήσωσιν ἄνθρωποι νεώτεροι καὶ τοὺς γονεῖς τοὺς αὑτῶν ἀπολίπωσιν καὶ τοὺς φίλους καὶ τοὺς συγγενεῖς καὶ τὸ κτησίδιον, ἵνα σοι "οὐᾶ" φῶσιν ἐπιφωνημάτια λέγοντι; τοῦτο Σωκράτης ἐποίει, τοῦτο Ζήνων, τοῦτο Κλεάνθης;

 

Long's Translation 1890.

The school of a philosopher is a surgery. You are not to go out of it with pleasure, but with pain; for you do not come there in health; but one of you has a dislocated shoulder; another, an abscess; a third, a fistula; a fourth, the headache. And am I, then, to sit uttering pretty, trifling thoughts and little exclamations, that, when you have praised me, you may each of you go away with the same dislocated shoulder, the same aching head, the same fistula. and the [2088] same abscess that you brought? And is it for this that young men are to travel? And do they leave their parents, their friends, their relations, and their estates, that they may praise you while you are uttering little exclamations? Was this the practice of Socrates; of Zeno; of Cleanthes?

 

 

Collected Notes on the text.

The order of the notes may be out of order in relation to the text.

Section 5.1a Notes click to expand    []

 

 

Section 5.1b Notes click to expand    []

 

 

Section 5.1c Notes click to expand    []

 

Section 2.1a Notes click to expand    []

 

Section 2.1bNotes click to expand    []

 

 

Section 2.2a Notes []

 

Section 2.2b Notes []

 

 

 

 

Section 2.2c Notes []

 

 

 

Section 2.2d Notes []

 

 

 

Sentences numbered for sending in the translations

Reading 2: Chapters 1.5-2.2

[0105a] εὐθὺς οὖν πάσῃ φαντασίᾳ τραχείᾳ μελέτα ἐπιλέγειν ὅτι "φαντασία εἶ καὶ οὐ πάντως τὸ φαινόμενον".

[0105b] ἔπειτα ἐξέταζε αὐτὴν καὶ δοκίμαζε τοῖς κανόσι τούτοις οἷς ἔχεις, πρώτῳ δὲ τούτῳ καὶ μάλιστα, πότερον περὶ τὰ ἐφ᾽ ἡμῖν ἐστιν ἢ περὶ τὰ οὐκ ἐφ᾽ ἡμῖν:

[0105c] κἂν περί τι τῶν οὐκ ἐφ᾽ ἡμῖν ᾖ, πρόχειρον ἔστω τὸ διότι "οὐδὲν πρὸς ἐμέ"

[0201a] Μέμνησο, ὅτι ὀρέξεως ἐπαγγελία ἐπιτυχία, οὗ ὀρέγῃ, ἐκκλίσεως ἐπαγγελία τὸ μὴ περιπεσεῖν ἐκείνῳ, ὃ ἐκκλίνεται, καὶ ὁ μὲν ἐν ὀρέξει ἀποτυγχάνων ἀτυχής, ὁ δὲ ἐν ἐκκλίσει περιπίπτων δυστυχής.

[0201b] ἂν μὲν οὖν μόνα ἐκκλίνῃς τὰ παρὰ φύσιν τῶν ἐπὶ σοί, οὐδενί, ὧν ἐκκλίνεις, περιπεσῇ: νόσον δ᾽ ἂν ἐκκλίνῃς ἢ θάνατον ἢ πενίαν, δυστυχήσεις.

[0202a] ἆρον οὖν τὴν ἔκκλισιν ἀπὸ πάντων τῶν οὐκ ἐφ᾽ ἡμῖν καὶ μετάθες ἐπὶ τὰ παρὰ φύσιν τῶν ἐφ᾽ ἡμῖν.

[0202b] τὴν ὄρεξιν δὲ παντελῶς ἐπὶ τοῦ παρόντος ἄνελε:

[0202c] ἄν τε γὰρ ὀρέγῃ τῶν οὐκ ἐφ᾽ ἡμῖν τινος, ἀτυχεῖν ἀνάγκη τῶν τε ἐφ᾽ ἡμῖν, ὅσων ὀρέγεσθαι καλὸν ἄν, οὐδὲν οὐδέπω σοι πάρεστι.

[0202d] μόνῳ δὲ τῷ ὁρμᾶν καὶ ἀφορμᾶν χρῶ, κούφως μέντοι καὶ μεθ᾽ ὑπεξαιρέσεως καὶ ἀνειμένως.

 

Table of Words

The local gloss is context-specific. The word-link and lemma-link are linked to the Perseus Hopper vocabulary tool. I have gone through the Greek lemma and verified them for accuracy - but there may still be some errors. Many of the definitions have been taken from the following translations: Mattheson, Boter, White, Oldfather and Long. If you have a better suggestion for a word, send in the word number, Greek word and suggested gloss, and I will add it into the vocabulary list.

A note of caution: Perseus does not always work as expected. The links are betacode which works better than sending in Greek Unicode lookups. But sometimes it still will not work. In addition, Perseus is often slow - if you see it cranking and cranking, try later, the server is too busy. An example of unexpected results is as follows: the neuter plural form ἀπαραπόδιστα returns 'not found'; the root lemma ἀπαραπόδιστος brings up its own correct entry. Some words are only listed in the Middle LSJ, not the main LSJ (e.g. οὐδέπω). So if you look up οὐδέπω in the Archimedes Harvard LSJ or your own personal copy, you won't find it.

 

 

qryEnchiridionWords_ReadingsLemma
WordID Reference GWord WordLink LemmaLink LocalGloss Construction POS Parsing
180 1.5 εὐθὺς εὐθὺς
εὐθύς
'from the outset', from the start

XXXXXXXX
181 1.5 οὖν οὖν
οὖν
therefore, then


182 1.5 πάσῃ πάσῃ
πᾶς
every


183 1.5 φαντασίᾳ φαντασίᾳ
φαντασία
impression, appearance


184 1.5 τραχείᾳ τραχείᾳ
τραχύς
harsh


185 1.5 μελέτα μελέτα
μελετάω
to do one's best; Μελέτα ἐπιλέγειν 'to confront with words'


186 1.5 ἐπιλέγειν ἐπιλέγειν
ἐπιλέγω
to say, to confront with words


187 1.5 ὅτι ὅτι
ὅτι
(untranslated)


188 1.5 φαντασία φαντασία
φαντασία
impression, appearance


189 1.5 εἶ εἶ
εἰμί
you are


190 1.5 καὶ καὶ
καί
and


191 1.5 οὐ οὐ
οὐ
not


192 1.5 πάντως πάντως
πάντως
οὐ πάντως 'not at all'
ADV
193 1.5 τὸ τὸ

the + Participle

194 1.5 φαινόμενον φαινόμενον
φαίνω
τὸ φαινόμενον 'what seems to be', 'the thing that has the appearance'


195 1.5 ἔπειτα ἔπειτα
ἔπειτα
After that, then


196 1.5 ἐξέταζε ἐξέταζε
#Error examine


197 1.5 αὐτὴν αὐτὴν
αὐτός
he, she, it


198 1.5 καὶ καὶ
καί
and


199 1.5 δοκίμαζε δοκίμαζε
δοκιμάζω
to test, judge, assess


200 1.5 τοῖς τοῖς

the


201 1.5 κανόσι κανόσι
κανών
a rule, standard, 'yardstick'


202 1.5 τούτοις τούτοις
οὗτος
these


203 1.5 οἷς οἷς
ὅς
which


204 1.5 ἔχεις ἔχεις
ἔχω
have


205 1.5 πρώτῳ πρώτῳ
πρότος
first; πρώτῳ δὲ τούτῳ 'in the first place', chief


206 1.5 δὲ δὲ
δέ




207 1.5 τούτῳ τούτῳ
οὗτος




208 1.5 καὶ καὶ
καί
and


209 1.5 μάλιστα μάλιστα
μάλιστα
foremost


210 1.5 πότερον πότερον
πρότερος
whether


211 1.5 περὶ περὶ
περί
has to do with, to belong to, concerns


212 1.5 τὰ τὰ

the things


213 1.5 ἐφ᾽ ἐφ᾽
ἐπί
under the control of + gen., up to


214 1.5 ἡμῖν ἡμῖν
ἡμεῖς
us


215 1.5 ἐστιν ἐστιν
εἰμί
is


216 1.5

or


217 1.5 περὶ περὶ
περί
under the control + gen., up to, in the power of


218 1.5 τὰ τὰ





219 1.5 οὐκ οὐκ
οὐ




220 1.5 ἐφ᾽ ἐφ᾽
ἐπί




221 1.5 ἡμῖν ἡμῖν
ἡμεῖς




222 1.5 κἂν κἂν
κἄν
and if


223 1.5 περί περί
περί
to do with + gen.


224 1.5 τι τι
τις
some one


225 1.5 τῶν τῶν

of the things


226 1.5 οὐκ οὐκ
οὐ
not


227 1.5 ἐφ᾽ ἐφ᾽
ἐπί
under the control + gen., up to


228 1.5 ἡμῖν ἡμῖν
ἡμεῖς
us


229 1.5
εἰμί
to be


230 1.5 πρόχειρον πρόχειρον
πρόχειρος
ἔστω πρόχειρον 'have ready to hand', to bear in mind, be ready


231 1.5 ἔστω ἔστω
εἰμί
to be


232 1.5 τὸ τὸ





233 1.5 διότι διότι
διότι
τὸ διότι 'the answer', 'to say'


234 1.5 οὐδὲν οὐδὲν
οὐδείς
nothing


235 1.5 πρὸς πρὸς
πρός
to, in relation to + acc.


236 1.5 ἐμέ ἐμέ
ἐγώ
me


237 2.1 Μέμνησο Μέμνησο
μιμνήσκω
remember


238 2.1 ὅτι ὅτι
ὅτι
that


239 2.1 ὀρέξεως ὀρέξεως
ὀρέξσις
desire, will


240 2.1 ἐπαγγελία ἐπαγγελία
ἐπαγγελία
to promise, to propose


241 2.1 ἐπιτυχία ἐπιτυχία
ἐπιτυχία
attainment, 'to obtain', to gain


242 2.1 οὗ οὗ
ὅς
of what


243 2.1 ὀρέγῃ ὀρέγῃ
ὀρέγω
to desire, to will


244 2.1 ἐκκλίσεως ἐκκλίσεως
ἐκκλίσις
aversion, avoidance


245 2.1 ἐπαγγελία ἐπαγγελία
ἐπαγγελία
promise, proposal


246 2.1 τὸ τὸ





247 2.1 μὴ μὴ
μή




248 2.1 περιπεσεῖν περιπεσεῖν
περιπίπτω
to fall into; τὸ μὴ περιπεσεῖν 'to escape', to avoid


249 2.1 ἐκείνῳ ἐκείνῳ
ἐκεῖνος
that


250 2.1
ὅς




251 2.1 ἐκκλίνεται ἐκκλίνεται
ἐκκλίνω
to avoid; ὃ ἐκκλίνεται 'what can be avoided', to be averse to


252 2.1 καὶ καὶ
καί
and


253 2.1

ὁ μὲν 'someone', 'he who'


254 2.1 μὲν μὲν
μέν

μὲν...δὲ

255 2.1 ἐν ἐν
ἐν




256 2.1 ὀρέξει ὀρέξει
ὀρέξσις
desire, what one wills


257 2.1 ἀποτυγχάνων ἀποτυγχάνων
ἀποτυγχάνω
to fail


258 2.1 ἀτυχής ἀτυχής
ἀτυχής
unfortunate


259 2.1





260 2.1 δὲ δὲ
δέ
while, but μὲν...δὲ

261 2.1 ἐν ἐν
ἐν
in


262 2.1 ἐκκλίσει ἐκκλίσει
ἐκκλίσις
'what one would avoid'


263 2.1 περιπίπτων περιπίπτων
περιπίπτω
to fall into


264 2.1 δυστυχής δυστυχής
δυστυχής
misfortune, 'to suffer misfortune', miserable


265 2.1 ἂν ἂν
ἄν
if


266 2.1 μὲν μὲν
μέν




267 2.1 οὖν οὖν
οὖν
then


268 2.1 μόνα μόνα
μόνος
only


269 2.1 ἐκκλίνῃς ἐκκλίνῃς
ἐκκλίνω
to avoid, to be averse to


270 2.1 τὰ τὰ

'things that are', 'what is'


271 2.1 παρὰ παρὰ
παρά




272 2.1 φύσιν φύσιν
φύσις
τὰ παρὰ φύσιν 'what is unnatural', 'not in accordance with nature', against nature


273 2.1 τῶν τῶν





274 2.1 ἐπὶ ἐπὶ
ἐπί
under the control of + gen.


275 2.1 σοί σοί
σῦ




276 2.1 οὐδενί οὐδενί
οὐδείς
'into none'; 'not into any'


277 2.1 ὧν ὧν
ὅς
of the things


278 2.1 ἐκκλίνεις ἐκκλίνεις
ἐκκλίνω
to avoid, to be averse to


279 2.1 περιπεσῇ περιπεσῇ
περιπίπτω
to fall into


280 2.1 νόσον νόσον
νόσος
disease, illness


281 2.1 δ᾽ δ᾽
δέ
but


282 2.1 ἂν ἂν
ἄν
if


283 2.1 ἐκκλίνῃς ἐκκλίνῃς
ἐκκλίνω
to avoid, to be averse to


284 2.1

or


285 2.1 θάνατον θάνατον
θάνατος
death


286 2.1

or


287 2.1 πενίαν πενίαν
πενία
poverty


288 2.1 δυστυχήσεις δυστυχήσεις
δυστυχέω
to experience misfortune, to suffer misfortune, to meet misfortune


289 2.2 ἆρον ἆρον
αἴρω
to withdraw, to take away, to detach


290 2.2 οὖν οὖν
οὖν
therefore


291 2.2 τὴν τὴν

'your'


292 2.2 ἔκκλισιν ἔκκλισιν
ἔκκλισις
aversion


293 2.2 ἀπὸ ἀπὸ
ἀπό
from; ἀπὸ πάντων τῶν... 'from all the things'


294 2.2 πάντων πάντων
πᾶς
all


295 2.2 τῶν τῶν





296 2.2 οὐκ οὐκ
οὐ




297 2.2 ἐφ᾽ ἐφ᾽
ἐπί
under the control of, up to


298 2.2 ἡμῖν ἡμῖν
ἡμεῖς
us


299 2.2 καὶ καὶ
καί
and


300 2.2 μετάθες μετάθες
μετατίθημι
to transfer, to direct something to something else,


301 2.2 ἐπὶ ἐπὶ
ἐπί
to


302 2.2 τὰ τὰ





303 2.2 παρὰ παρὰ
παρά
+ acc. normally 3 main ideas: beyond, beside, along


304 2.2 φύσιν φύσιν
φύσις
τὰ παρὰ φύσιν 'what is unnatural', 'what is against nature'


305 2.2 τῶν τῶν





306 2.2 ἐφ᾽ ἐφ᾽
ἐπί
up to


307 2.2 ἡμῖν ἡμῖν
ἡμεῖς
us


308 2.2 Τὴν Τὴν





309 2.2 ὄρεξιν ὄρεξιν
ὄρεξις
desire


310 2.2 δὲ δὲ
δέ
but


311 2.2 παντελῶς παντελῶς
παντελῶς
utterly


312 2.2 ἐπὶ ἐπὶ
ἐπί




313 2.2 τοῦ τοῦ





314 2.2 παρόντος παρόντος
πάρειμι
ἐπὶ τοῦ παρόντος 'for the time being', for the moment


315 2.2 ἄνελε ἄνελε
ἀναιρέω
remove, eliminate


316 2.2 ἄν ἄν
ἄν
if; ἄν τε γὰρ 'since if'


317 2.2 τε τε
τε




318 2.2 γὰρ γὰρ
γάρ
for


319 2.2 ὀρέγῃ ὀρέγῃ
ὀρέγω
to desire, 'will to get'


320 2.2 τῶν τῶν





321 2.2 οὐκ οὐκ
οὐ




322 2.2 ἐφ᾽ ἐφ᾽
ἐπί
up to


323 2.2 ἡμῖν ἡμῖν
ἡμεῖς




324 2.2 τινος τινος
τις
some, some one of


325 2.2 ἀτυχεῖν ἀτυχεῖν
ἀτυχέω
to be unfortunate


326 2.2 ἀνάγκη ἀνάγκη
ἀνάγκη
'bound to be' + inf.; ἀνάγκη ἀτυχεῖν 'sure to be unfortunate'


327 2.2 τῶν τῶν





328 2.2 τε τε
τε
at the same time


329 2.2 ἐφ᾽ ἐφ᾽
ἐπί
up to


330 2.2 ἡμῖν ἡμῖν
ἡμεῖς
us


331 2.2 ὅσων ὅσων
ὅσος




332 2.2 ὀρέγεσθαι ὀρέγεσθαι
ὀρέγω
καλὸν ὀρέγεσθαι 'excellent to desire', 'honourably will to get'


333 2.2 καλὸν καλὸν
καλός
excellent, honourable


334 2.2 ἄν ἄν
ἄν




335 2.2 οὐδὲν οὐδὲν
οὐδείς
not one


336 2.2 οὐδέπω οὐδέπω
οὐδέπω




337 2.2 σοι σοι
σῦ




338 2.2 πάρεστι πάρεστι
πάρειμι
πάρεστι σοι 'in your grasp', 'in your reach', to be available


339 2.2 Μόνῳ Μόνῳ
μόνος
only


340 2.2 δὲ δὲ
δέ
but


341 2.2 τῷ τῷ





342 2.2 ὁρμᾶν ὁρμᾶν
ὁρμάω
choice, impulse, impulse to act


343 2.2 καὶ καὶ
καί
and


344 2.2 ἀφορμᾶν ἀφορμᾶν
ἀφορμάω
refusal, rejection (i.e. the opposite of impulse), impulse not to act


345 2.2 χρῶ χρῶ
χράω
to employ, to use, make use of, exercise


346 2.2 κούφως κούφως
κούφως
lightly, gently


347 2.2 μέντοι μέντοι
μέντοι
too


348 2.2 καὶ καὶ
καί




349 2.2 μεθ᾽ μεθ᾽
μετά
with + gen


350 2.2 ὑπεξαιρέσεως ὑπεξαιρέσεως
ὑπεξαίρεσις
reservation(s), provisionally


351 2.2 καὶ καὶ
καί
and


352 2.2 ἀνειμένως ἀνειμένως
#Error without straining