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Reading 1 - Monday March 24

Chapters: 1.1-1.4
Translations Due Sunday, March 30 (midnight CST)
Grammar Questions Due Tuesday, April 1 (midnight CST)

Level Book Sections Title Questions Notes
Basic 1
Enchiridion What is and is not up to us. 1.1 1.1
Basic 2
Enchiridion What's up to us explained. 1.2 1.2
Optional 1
Enchiridion Keep the two separate. 1.3 1.3
Optional 2
Enchiridion You can not be mediocre. 1.4 1.4
Advanced 1
Simplicius Intro 18-25 Description of the Enchiridion. NA NA
Advanced 2
Simplicius 4.1-9 Discussion of 'What is up to us' NA NA
       
Greek Sentences
Instructions for sending in translations  
Audio File
Enchiridin 1.1-1.5 recording using 'Living Koine' pronunciation (Right click file name and select "save file as" for Microsoft Windows OS.)
Greek Text (Pdf file of the reading)

Schweighauser's 1799 Reading 01(Schenkl's Source ) with Wolf's Latin Translation. A 2 page pdf file.

Schenkl's 1916 Reading 01 (Text used by this group and Perseus). A 2 page pdf file.

Thurot's 1903 Reading 1 (French with Greek notes and commentary).  A 3 page pdf file.

Vocabulary
Vocabulary of the entire Enchiridion with frequency statistics and glosses Special vocabulary: a table of the 100+ words that Epictetus uses frequently or in a special sense.

It's Up to Us

The first chapter of the Enchiridion introduces us to the most important of concepts that Epictetus wishes us to learn: 'Some things are up to us'. Throughout the textual history of the Enchiridion and the various Christian adaptations, this initial assertion is never changed or modified. It is 'up to us'.

Epictetus as a Stoic talked about things "in our power" (τὰ ἐφ᾽ ἡμῖν) and "not in our power" (τὰ οὐκ ἐφ᾽ ἡμῖν). These are to be cross-referenced with "things in accordance with nature" (τὰ κατὰ φύσιν) and "things against nature" (τὰ παρὰ φύσιν). (cf. Seddon p. 207). The constant comparing of two concepts comes through in the Greek:the correlative conjunctions μὲν... δὲ are used about 30x. The words for 'if' occur frequently: ἐάν (35x) εἰ (38x) and the particle ἄν (51x).

Chapter 14.1 also expresses a similar phraseology: ...τὰ γὰρ μὴ ἐπὶ σοὶ θέλεις ἐπὶ σοὶ εἶναι..."If you would have your children and your wife and your friends to live for ever, you are silly; for you would have the things which are not in your power to be in your power" (Higginson).

The use of the preposition ἐπί with the dative meaning 'up to' may strike some as strange; it is hard to find the exact section of the LSJ lexicon which corresponds. The prepositional phrase 'ἐφ᾽ ἡμῖν' is used repetitively throughout the Enchiridion (20x; Chap 1 9x; c2 4x). We also see the phrase ἐπὶ σοί (6x); cf. c.14.1.

Other Principles of Stoicism

The other principles of Stoicism (e.g. the three topoi which are not directly mentioned in the Enchiridion) come second to this supreme principle. Epictetus does not include a discussion of physics or logic. It does not mean his students did not study them.

Are You an Idiot-es?

More correctly, are you an ἰδιώτης. The word ἰδιώτης is sometimes translated 'private citizen', 'uneducated person'. It is who most people are in Epictetus' world. The goal of the Stoic was to become a φιλόσοφος, a σοφός. Those learning to become a σοφός are called προκοπτόν because they are 'making progress.'

The Title of the Enchiridion

The Enchiridion has had a number of titles in the Greek (they can be found in Boter's) edition:

"The word ἐγχειρίδιον is an adjective, meaning ‘in the hand ‘ or ‘ ready to hand ‘. With βιβλίον (book) it means a handy book or hand-book, with ξίφος (sword) a handy sword, or dagger. Epictetus in the Discourses often speaks of the principles which his disciples should have ‘ ready to their hand’ (πρόχειρα cf. 1.5), and it was natural that Arrian, after putting together his notes of his master’s discourses,should attempt to embody his teaching in more compendious form in this Manual. So far as we know it is Arrian’s selections." (Mattheson)

Simplicius, a 5th Century neo-Platonist wrote a commentary on the Enchiridion. It includes an explanation of the title:

It is entitled 'The Handbook', because it ought always to be to hand or ready for those who want to live well (just as a soldier's 'hand-sword' should always be to hand for its user). The speeches are very effective and stirring, so that anyone not totally deadened would be goaded by them, become aware of his own afflictions, and be roused to correct them. Some are affected more and some less; but someone who is not affected by these speeches could only be corrected by the courts of Hades. (Brittain & Brennan)

 

Aids to Reading the Greek

Special Words

The meanings of the LSJ lexicon do not always point out or fit the 'Stoic' use of terms. There are quite a few terms in the first chapter which are 'loaded'. Seddon (p. 32) lists 34 words as being 'key' terms for this chapter. Some of them are 'Stoic specific'; most are not. As the special vocabulary page is being built, a fuller 'special lexicon' will become available to help understand the Greek word.

Know your Adjectives and Nouns

Greek often leaves out verbs when understood. I have found this one of the harder features of Epictetus. Often when predicate adjectives appear, there is no verb. This can make the understanding confusing, especially when you only learned a word as being a noun and not an adjective (or vice-versa). Words like δοῦλος can be both adjectives and nouns in Greek. ὁ δοῦλος is a slave and is used both in Attic and Hellenistic Greek; Hellenistic Greek uses δοῦλος -η, -ον also as an adjective means 'slavish' or 'servile'. The context is not always that much of a help when there is no article in front of the word.

For example, In c1.2 the words ἐλεύθερα, ἀκώλυτα, ἀπαραπόδιστα, ἀσθενῆ, δοῦλα, κωλυτά, ἀλλότρια are all neuter plural nominative adjectives. You may initially translate δοῦλα as a noun, until you realize that would not really make sense. Also see c2.1 Μέμνησο, ὅτι ὀρέξεως ἐπαγγελία ἐπιτυχία, οὗ ὀρέγῃ, ἐκκλίσεως ἐπαγγελία...'Remember, the promise of desire is good fortune of what you are striving for'). The phrase ἐπαγγελία ἐπιτυχία was confusing to even some scribes, who changed the text to read >

Corrections to the Text

*Textual note: Two changes to the Perseus text:

  1. The beginning of section 1.3 is moved to start with μέμνησο
  2. The word ἀποτεύξη in line 1.4b should be written with an iota subscript and appear as ἀποτεύξῃ (agreeing with Boter and Oldfather).

 

Reading 1: Chapters 1.1-1.4

Reading 1 - Basic Group Enchiridion Chapters 1.1-1.2
Apparatus
Translation
Answers
Vocabulary

    [1.1a] Τῶν ὄντων τὰ μέν ἐστιν ἐφ᾽ ἡμῖν, τὰ δὲ οὐκ ἐφ᾽ ἡμῖν. ἐφ᾽ ἡμῖν μὲν ὑπόληψις, ὁρμή, ὄρεξις, ἔκκλισις καὶ ἑνὶ λόγῳ ὅσα ἡμέτερα ἔργα: [1.1b] οὐκ ἐφ᾽ ἡμῖν δὲ τὸ σῶμα, ἡ κτῆσις, δόξαι, ἀρχαὶ καὶ ἑνὶ λόγῳ ὅσα οὐχ ἡμέτερα ἔργα. [1.2a] καὶ τὰ μὲν ἐφ᾽ ἡμῖν ἐστι φύσει ἐλεύθερα, ἀκώλυτα, ἀπαραπόδιστα, τὰ δὲ οὐκ ἐφ᾽ ἡμῖν ἀσθενῆ, δοῦλα, κωλυτά, ἀλλότρια.

 

Basic Questions

Q1 Line 1.1a Τῶν ὄντων τὰ μέν ἐστιν ἐφ᾽ ἡμῖν. How would you describe the use of the particple ὄντων? What is the best way to translate this phrase? cf. The advanced reading of Simplicius 4.1-9 where he explains what he thinks it means.

Q2 Line 1a. How would you translate the word ἐπί in the phrase ἐφ' ἡμῖν? What meaning in LSJ comes closes to the idea in this sentence (give LSJ reference , e.g. B. II, 3).

Q3 Line 1a. Can you give the section in Smyth's Grammar for the reason the singular of the verb εἰμί is used in the phrase τὰ μὲν ἐφ᾽ ἡμῖν ἐστι.

Q4 Line 1b. Why are the words δόξαι, ἀρχαὶ in the plural - how should one translate them?

Q5 Line 1b.  What word is ἑνὶ from? Is is a variation of the preposition ἐν? What is the best way to translate it - 'single', 'a', etc.? Is this a Hellenistic feature?

Q6 Line 2a.  Why is the article missing from φύσει? Would it change the meaning if it was there? What is the best term to describe how this dative is used?

Q7 Line 2a-q2.  Give translations for the following words: ἐλεύθερα, ἀκώλυτα, ἀπαραπόδιστα, ἀσθενῆ, δοῦλα, κωλυτά, ἀλλότρια. (Note the similar endings except for ἀσθενῆ)

Q8 Line 2a.  What is the stem of ἀσθενῆ? Why the circumflex accent over the ending? If a contract, what vowels contract and why? What section in your grammar book deals with this type of stem (give book, chapter, page, etc.)?

 

Reading 1 - Optional Reading Enchiridion Chapters 1.3-1.4
Apparatus
Translation
Answers
Vocabulary

[1.3a] μέμνησο οὖν, ὅτι, ἐὰν τὰ φύσει δοῦλα ἐλεύθερα οἰηθῇς καὶ τὰ ἀλλότρια ἴδια, ἐμποδισθήσῃ, πενθήσεις, ταραχθήσῃ, μέμψῃ καὶ θεοὺς καὶ ἀνθρώπους, [1.3b] ἐὰν δὲ τὸ σὸν μόνον οἰηθῇς σὸν εἶναι, τὸ δὲ ἀλλότριον, ὥσπερ ἐστίν, ἀλλότριον, οὐδείς σε ἀναγκάσει οὐδέποτε, οὐδείς σε κωλύσει, οὐ μέμψῃ οὐδένα, οὐκ ἐγκαλέσεις τινί, ἄκων πράξεις οὐδὲ ἕν, οὐδείς σε βλάψει, ἐχθρὸν οὐχ ἕξεις, οὐδὲ γὰρ βλαβερόν τι πείσῃ. [1.4a] τηλικούτων οὖν ἐφιέμενος μέμνησο, ὅτι οὐ δεῖ μετρίως κεκινημένον ἅπτεσθαι αὐτῶν, ἀλλὰ τὰ μὲν ἀφιέναι παντελῶς, τὰ δ᾽ ὑπερτίθεσθαι πρὸς τὸ παρόν.  [1.4b] ἐὰν δὲ καὶ ταῦτ᾽ ἐθέλῃς καὶ ἄρχειν καὶ πλουτεῖν, τυχὸν μὲν οὐδ᾽ αὐτῶν τούτων τεύξῃ διὰ τὸ καὶ τῶν προτέρων ἐφίεσθαι, πάντως γε μὴν ἐκείνων ἀποτεύξῃ, δι᾽ ὧν μόνων ἐλευθερία καὶ εὐδαιμονία περιγίνεται.

 

Optional Questions

Q9 Line 3a. What tense is μέμνησο? What is the significance of the middle, and what is the best way to translate it?

Q10 Line 3a. Parse οἰηθῇς.It is from οἴομαι. Why the η before the θ? Would one expect the form οἰωθῇς? What other principal parts have an eta in the stem?

Q11 Line 3a. Translate the phrase τὰ ἀλλότρια ἴδια. What verbs or ideas are implied?

Q12 Line 3b. How do you tranlsate the phrase ὥσπερ ἐστίν. What ideas does it add to the statement?

Q13 Line 3b. Translate the phrase οὐδὲ γὰρ βλαβερόν τι πείσῃ. Parse πείσῃ. Do you have any tricks to remember/keep distinct the forms that end in -σῃ?

Q14 Line 4a. Translate the phrase τηλικούτων οὖν ἐφιέμενος. To what word(s) is τηλικούτων referring?

Q15 Line 4a. What do you think is the best translation for the word μετρίως in the phrase οὐ δεῖ μετρίως κεκινημένον ἅπτεσθαι αὐτῶν?

Q16 Line 4b. How does the word τυχὸν function in the sentence τυχὸν μὲν οὐδ᾽ αὐτῶν τούτων τεύξῃ?

Q17 Line 4b. What is Epictetus really trying to say when he says πάντως γε μὴν ἐκείνων ἀποτεύξῃ, δι᾽ ὧν μόνων ἐλευθερία καὶ εὐδαιμονία περιγίνεται. ?

 

Other questions some may have:

Q18 Line 3b. ἀναγκάσει. What is the rule for dentals when a sigma -σ- tense formant is added to the stem ending? Which consonants are classified as dentals?

Q19 Line 4a. Why is the preposition for ἐφιέμενος aspirated (ἐφ- not ἐπ-)?

Q20 Line 4a. Explain the use of the genitive in the phrase ἅπτεσθαι αὐτῶν.

Q21 Line 4a. Parse παρόν. Translate the phrase τὸ παρόν. Would you classify this phrase as an idiom?

 

Reading 1 - Advanced Reading 1 Simplicius Introduction 18-25
Text
Questions
Notes
Apparatus
Answers
Vocabulary

Simplicius 18-25 [26-35]
Ἐγχειρίδιον δὲ αὐτὸ ἐπιγέγραπται διὰ το πρόχειρον ἀεὶ αὐτὸ δεῖν καὶ ἕτοιμον εἶναι τοῖς βουλομένοις εὖ ζῆν. Καὶ γὰρ καὶ τὸ στρατιωτικὸν ἐγχειρίδιον ξίφος ἐστί, πρόχειρον ἀεὶ τοῖς χρωμένοις ὀφεῖλον εἶναι. [30] Πολὺ δὲ τὸ δραστήριον καὶ κινητικὸν τῶν ψυχῶν ἔχουσιν οἱ λόγοι, ὡς τοὺς μὴ πάνυ νενεκρωμένους νύττεσθαι ἐξ αὐτῶν καὶ συναισθάνεσθαι τῶν οἰκείων παθῶν καὶ πρὸς διόρθωσιν αὐτῶν ἐπεγείρεσθαι, τοὺς μὲν μᾶλλον, τοὺς δὲ ἦττον. Καὶ εἴ τις ὑπὸ τούτων μὴ πάσχει τῶν λόγων, [35] ὑπὸ μόνων ἂν τῶν ἐν ᾄδου δικαωτηρίων {ἀ}πευθυνθείη.

 

It is entitled 'The Handbook', because it ought always to be to hand or ready for those who want to live well (just as a soldier's 'hand-sword' should always be to hand for its user). The speeches are very effective and stirring, so that anyone not totally deadened would be goaded by them, become aware of his own afflictions, and be roused to correct them. Some are affected more and some less; but someone who is not affected by these speeches could only be corrected by the courts of Hades. (Brittain & Brennan)

 

Reading 1 - Advanced Reading 2 Simplicius 4.1-9
Text
Questions
Notes
Apparatus
Answers
Vocabulary

Simplicius 4.1-9

Τῶν ὄντων τὰ μέν ἐστιν ἐφ᾽ ἡμῖν, τὰ δὲ οὐκ ἐφ᾽ ἡμῖν.

[4] Ἐφ' ἡμῖν ἐκεῖνα λέγει ὧν κύριοί ἐσμεν καὶ ὧν τὴν ἐξουσίαν ἔχομεν. Ταῦτα γὰρ ἐπ' αὐτῷ ἑκάστῳ λέγομεν, ἃ μὴ παρ' ἄλλου ἔχει μηδὲ ὑπ' ἄλλου τινὸς ἐμποδίζεσθαι δύναται. Τοιαῦτα δέ ἐστι τὰ κινήματα τῆς ψυχῆς, τὰ ἔνδοθεν ἀπ αὐτῆς κατὰ τὴν αὐτῆς κρίσιν καὶ ἄρεσιν γινόμενα. Οὐ γὰρ δυνατὸν ἔξωθεν κινεῖσθαι τὴν αἵρεσιν· ἀλλὰ κἂν τὸ θἱρετὸν ἔξωθεν ᾖ, ἡ αἵρεσις αὐτη καὶ ἡ ἐπὶ τὸ αἱρετὸν κίνησις ἔνδοθέν ἐστι.

 

[4] By 'up to us' he means those things which we are in control of and over which we have authority. After all, we say that those things are 'up to' each person which he does not have from someone else, and which cannot be impeded by anyone else. The motions of the soul, which arise internally from itself according to its judgment and choice, are like this. For choice can't be moved from outside. Rather, even if the object of choice is external, the choice itself and the motion towards the object of choice are internal. (Brittain & Brennan).

 

Collected Notes on the text.

The order of the notes may be out of order in relation to the text.

 

Section 1.1a Notes click to expand    []

1.1a. Greek Note: Notice the correlative conjunctions -Τῶν ὄντων τὰ μέν ...τὰ δὲ;  οὐκ ἐφ᾽ ἡμῖν μὲν.... δὲ τὸ σῶμα; καὶ τὰ μὲν ἐφ᾽ ἡμῖν ἐστι φύσει..., τὰ δὲ οὐκ ἐφ᾽ ἡμῖν. The construction μὲν....δὲ occurs ca. 30x times in the Enchiridion and shows the pedogogical techniques of Epictetus where he is constantly comparing concepts and values.

1.1a. Greek Note: When not needed, the verb is routinely omitted where it can be implied. e.g. 1.1 ἐφ᾽ ἡμῖν μὲν (ἐστιν) ὑπόληψις; 1.2 καὶ τὰ ἀλλότρια (ἐστιν) ἴδια

1.1a Rolleston p.3 n.2: ἐφ' ἡμῖν ἐστίν. The full sense which Epictetus puts into these words cannot be briefly rendered into English.

1.1a. Greek Grammar: ἡμέτερα ἔργα cf. Thurot 'the things we love to do'

 

Section 1.1b Notes click to expand    []

1.1b. Grammar Tip: 1.1 τὰ μέν ἐστιν. also 5.1; 2.1 etc. The neuter plural subject routinely takes a singular verb. (cf. Smyth § )

1.1b Greek Vocabulary: 1.1: ἀρχαί cf. 1.4: αρχεῖν. Epictetus is referring to 'public office' (Seddon p. 34)

1.1b. Greek Vocabulary: 1.1: δόξαι Seddon p. 35: 'how we evaluate things'. In the NT, δόξα has taken on a Semitic meaning and is often translated 'glory'; secular Greek has the meanings 'opinion' i.e. what you think (about yourself) and 'reputation' i.e. what others think (about you).

 

Section 1.2 Notes click to expand    []

1.2a Greek Vocabulary: ἔκκλισις 'aversion'; the opposite is ὄρεξις 'desire' (Seddon p. 35)

1.2a. Special Vocablary: 1.2 ἀλλότρια. This is a favorite word of Epictetus; 9 times in the Enchiridion. It means -'of others, not yours'.

1.2a. Greek Note: φύσει. Dative of respect. Smyth §1516.

1.2a: Morphology Tip: The alpha privative negates the meaning of a word:. ἀ-κώλυτα, ἀ-παραπόδιστα. This is a common feature of Epictetus' vocabulary: ἀ-λυπος scerenely, ἀ-φοβος fearlessly, ἀ-παθος dispassionate, ἀ-κωλυτος freely, etc.

 

Section 1.3a Notes click to expand    []

1.3a. Style Note: μέμνησο, ὅτι... This is one of the favorite ways of introducing a new chapter in the Enchiridion and occurs 17x in the Enchiridion. The middle form, while not as frequent in Hellenistic Greek as in Attic Greek, is still being used. Is it chosen for a purpose 'remind yourself!', or does it just mean 'remember'?

1.3a. Greek Note: καὶ θεοὺς καὶ ἀνθρώπους. Translate as 'both...and'. See also 1.5 καὶ ἄρχειν καὶ πλουτεῖν

Section 1.3b Notes click to expand    []

1.3b. Commentary Note: ἐχθρὸν οὐχ ἕξεις cf. Thurot note 2.2

1.3b. Morphology tip: ἕξεις. Only the future form of ἔχω has hard breathing rather than soft; the stem was σεχ (σχ) and the initial sigma (which was aspirated ) reappears when the χ becomes ξ (Grimms Law of deaspiration cf. MBG ἔχω). The aorist is predictable if it it understood that tha sigma elides: ἐ-σ-εχον > ε-εχον > ἐιχον. The normal contraction of two epsilons.

1.3b. Syntax Note: ἐὰν .... οἰηθῇς.... ἐὰν+ subjunctive introduces a third class conditional. The apodosis, the 'then clause', can take any tense or mood. In this instance, the apodosis is in the future tense οὐδείς σε ἀναγκάσει.....

1.3b. Greek Translation Note: οὐδὲ γὰρ βλαβερόν τι πείσῃ. 'you will suffer no harm'.

1.3b. Morphology Note: By form, πείσῃ can be either from πείθω or πάσχω by form. The following three verbs are very common and should be put to memory:

πάσχω, πείσομαι , ἔπαθον πέπονθα,_,_ I suffer, have an experience
πείθω, πείσω, ἔπεισα, πέποιθα, πέπεισμαι, ἐπείσθην to prevail upon, win over, persuade
πίπτω, πεσοῦμαι, ἔπεσον, πέπτωκα, _, _ I fall

πείσῃ verb 2nd sg fut ind mp/dep of πάσχω
πείσῃ verb 2nd sg fut ind mp from πείθω
πείσῃ verb 2nd sg aor subj mp from πείθω
πείσῃ verb 3rd sg pres subj act from πείθω

The form πείσῃ is not from πίπτω. The form πεσῃ is future deponent of πίπτω. The stem of πίπτω never appears as πείσ-, mostly as πεσ- or πτ- (also πιτ-, πετ-, πτη-, πτε-).

1.3b. Special Vocabulary Note: LSJ

πάσχω , impf. ἔπασχον,: fut. πείσομαι, ἔπαθον, πεπονθα A. IV. in later Stoic Philos., πάσχειν is to be acted upon by outward objects, take impressions from, them, opp. ἀποπάσχω, mostly folld. by ὅτι, to be led to suppose that . . , Arr.Epict.1.2.3, 1.18.1, etc. : also c. acc., have experience of, ἀρετήν, λόγον, Ph.2.449, 1.121. (Πθσκω, fut. Πένθ-σομαι, cf. πένθος.)

1.3b Greek Grammar: οὐδὲ ἕν The lack of contraction/crasis into οὐδέν shows emphasis 'absolutely nothing'. cf. Thurot 2.1

 

 

Section 1.4a Notes []

1.4a. Reference Note: τηλικούτων (cf. Thurot note 2.3) Denoting the things he had just enumerated.

1.4a. Vocabulary Note: τηλικούτων οὖν ἐφιέμενος LSJ ἐφίημι: B.II: to long for, to aim at + gen.

1.4a Vocabulary Note: οὐ δεῖ μετρίως κεκινημένον. Should κεκινημένον be translated as middle or passive? LSJ κινέω:Active: A.2 to apply, to change, alter.; B.2 of persons, to be moved, stirred, κεκινημένος one who is agitated, excited.  

1.4a. Greek Note: Thurot 2.4 μετρίως with 'mediocrity'' or 'lukewarmness'.) Mattheson note 2: 1. οὐ δεῖ μετρίως κεκινημένον, κτλ. a. See Introd., p. 32. Here, as in the Manual generally, it is the beginner who is chiefly addressed.

1.4a. Explanation μετρίως κεκινημένον. "This may mean simply that the proposed undertaking is difficult (Oldfather's translation suggests this), or it may mean (as I believe) that the aim cannot be achieved by the Aristotelian policy of pursuing a mean or middle course between extremes." (White p. 11).

1.4a. Greek Note: ἅπτεσθαι αὐτῶν (cf. Thurot 2.5) also see Ench.chapters: 4,34,38).

1.4a Vocabulary Tip: ἅπτεσθαι αὐτῶν. Verbs of touching routinely take the genitive.

1.4a. Morphology Tip: μετρίως The ending -ίως is a standard productive ending for adjective stems. See also παντελῶς, πάντως. Here μετρίως 'with mediocrity' is contrasted with παντελῶς 'completely, utterly'.

1.4 Explanation 1.4 Long Note 1: 1 This passage will be obscure in the original, unless it is examined well. I have followed the explanation of Simplicius, iv. (i. 4.)

Section 1.4b Notes []

1.4b. Grammar Reference Note: ἐὰν δὲ καὶ ταῦτ᾽ ἐθέλῃς... ταῦτ᾽ = ταῦτα refers back the the things enumerated by τηλικούτων (Thurot 2.6)

1.4b. Vocabulary Tip: τυχὸν ( Aorist Active Participle Neuter Singular Accusative of τυγχάνω). The accusative case of adjectives or participles are often used as an adverb. Here, it can be translated 'by chance' = maybe.

1.4b. Grammar Note: τεύξῃ The aorist subjunctive middle and future middle are the same in form. (There is no future subjunctive.) By form this could be from either τεύχω or τυγχάνω. τυγχάνω and ἀποτυγχ́ανω are often contrasted. cf. note 1.34. Also see 2.1 ἀποτυγχάνων ἀτυχής.

1.4b. Grammar Note: τεύξῃ is from one of two lemmas: τεύχω to make ready, make, build, work 2nd aor subj; 2nd sing fut ind; τυγχάνω to hit, to happen 2nd sing fut indicative

1.4b. Grammar Note. 1.4 διὰ τὸ ... ἐφίεσθαι Translate as 'because (you) went after the former (προτέρων)'. LSJ ἐφίημι + gen.: B.2.2 to long at, aim for.

1.4b. Special Vocab: εὐδαιμονία This is the state of ultimate contentment in Stoic philosophy. (Seddon p. 33) Ευδαιμονία ἐστὶν εὔρροια βίου (Thurot, Des Mots Techniques: Lexique p. 57 under εὐροεῖν)

1.4b. Special Vocabulary: φαντασίᾳ τραχείᾳ (cf. Thurot 2.8: pleasant impressions are few and far between. cf. Long note 2: Appearances are named 'harsh' or 'rough' when they are 'contrary to reason and overexciting and in fact make life rough (uneven) by the want of symmetry and by inequality in the movements. See Simplicius, v. (i. 5.).) An impression is bad when the person says 1) this is something bad for me or 2) to which an emotional response is appropriate. Such a situation infers the use of a a false evaluation (Seddon p. 37).

1.4b. Vocab Tip: 1.4b περιγίνεται. LSJ meaning AII3 of things, to be left over : hence, to be a result or consequence. The meaning is causative here: 'to bring about'.

1.4b. Explanation. δι᾽ ὧν μόνων ἐλευθερία καὶ εὐδαιμονία περιγίνεται. Epictetus recommends aiming to have one's state of mind in accord with nature, in the sense explained in the previous paragraph and in c.8 (cf. Introd). His point here is that if you aim for that and also simultaneously for certain "external" like wealth, you will probably have neither and clearly will not have the former. (White, p. 11).

 

 

Sentences numbered for sending in the translations

Reading 1: Chapters 1.1-1.4

[0101a] Τῶν ὄντων τὰ μέν ἐστιν ἐφ᾽ ἡμῖν, τὰ δὲ οὐκ ἐφ᾽ ἡμῖν. ἐφ᾽ ἡμῖν μὲν ὑπόληψις, ὁρμή, ὄρεξις, ἔκκλισις καὶ ἑνὶ λόγῳ ὅσα ἡμέτερα ἔργα:

[0101b] οὐκ ἐφ᾽ ἡμῖν δὲ τὸ σῶμα, ἡ κτῆσις, δόξαι, ἀρχαὶ καὶ ἑνὶ λόγῳ ὅσα οὐχ ἡμέτερα ἔργα.

[0102a] καὶ τὰ μὲν ἐφ᾽ ἡμῖν ἐστι φύσει ἐλεύθερα, ἀκώλυτα, ἀπαραπόδιστα, τὰ δὲ οὐκ ἐφ᾽ ἡμῖν ἀσθενῆ, δοῦλα, κωλυτά, ἀλλότρια.

[0103a] μέμνησο οὖν, ὅτι, ἐὰν τὰ φύσει δοῦλα ἐλεύθερα οἰηθῇς καὶ τὰ ἀλλότρια ἴδια, ἐμποδισθήσῃ, πενθήσεις, ταραχθήσῃ, μέμψῃ καὶ θεοὺς καὶ ἀνθρώπους,

[0103b] ἐὰν δὲ τὸ σὸν μόνον οἰηθῇς σὸν εἶναι, τὸ δὲ ἀλλότριον, ὥσπερ ἐστίν, ἀλλότριον, οὐδείς σε ἀναγκάσει οὐδέποτε, οὐδείς σε κωλύσει, οὐ μέμψῃ οὐδένα, οὐκ ἐγκαλέσεις τινί, ἄκων πράξεις οὐδὲ ἕν, οὐδείς σε βλάψει, ἐχθρὸν οὐχ ἕξεις, οὐδὲ γὰρ βλαβερόν τι πείσῃ.

[0104a] τηλικούτων οὖν ἐφιέμενος μέμνησο, ὅτι οὐ δεῖ μετρίως κεκινημένον ἅπτεσθαι αὐτῶν, ἀλλὰ τὰ μὲν ἀφιέναι παντελῶς, τὰ δ᾽ ὑπερτίθεσθαι πρὸς τὸ παρόν.

[0104b] ἐὰν δὲ καὶ ταῦτ᾽ ἐθέλῃς καὶ ἄρχειν καὶ πλουτεῖν, τυχὸν μὲν οὐδ᾽ αὐτῶν τούτων τεύξῃ διὰ τὸ καὶ τῶν προτέρων ἐφίεσθαι, πάντως γε μὴν ἐκείνων ἀποτεύξῃ, δι᾽ ὧν μόνων ἐλευθερία καὶ εὐδαιμονία περιγίνεται.

 

Table of Words

The local gloss is context-specific. The word-link and lemma-link are linked to the Perseus Hopper vocabulary tool. I have gone through the Greek lemma and verified them for accuracy - but there are still errors. If you have a better suggestion for a word, send in the word number, Greek word and suggested gloss, and I will add it into the vocabulary list.

 

qryEnchiridionWords_ReadingsLemma
WordID Reference GWord WordLink LemmaLink LocalGloss Construction POS Parsing
1 1.1 Τῶν Τῶν

the


2 1.1 ὄντων ὄντων
εἰμί
subst. with τῶν: things that are, existing things
V XXXXXXXX
3 1.1 τὰ τὰ

τὰ μέν 'some things'


4 1.1 μέν μέν
μέν
on the one hand μέν...δέ

5 1.1 ἐστιν ἐστιν
εἰμί
are


6 1.1 ἐφ᾽ ἐφ᾽
ἐπί
up to; ἐπί ἡμῖν under our control; In our power


7 1.1 ἡμῖν ἡμῖν
ἡμεῖς
us


8 1.1 τὰ τὰ

τὰ δὲ 'other things'


9 1.1 δὲ δὲ
δέ
on the other hand μέν...δέ

10 1.1 οὐκ οὐκ
οὐ
not


11 1.1 ἐφ᾽ ἐφ᾽
ἐπί
up to


12 1.1 ἡμῖν ἡμῖν
ἡμεῖς
us


13 1.1 ἐφ᾽ ἐφ᾽
ἐπί
up to


14 1.1 ἡμῖν ἡμῖν
ἡμεῖς
us


15 1.1 μὲν μὲν
μέν
on the one hand μέν...δέ

16 1.1 ὑπόληψις ὑπόληψις
ὑπόληψσις
opinion, thought


17 1.1 ὁρμή ὁρμή
ὁρμή
choice, impulse


18 1.1 ὄρεξις ὄρεξις
ὄρεξις
desire, will to get


19 1.1 ἔκκλισις ἔκκλισις
ἔκκλισις
aversion, will to avoid


20 1.1 καὶ καὶ
καί
and


21 1.1 ἑνὶ ἑνὶ
εἷς
a


22 1.1 λόγῳ λόγῳ
λόγος
word; ἑνὶ λόγῳ 'in short'


23 1.1 ὅσα ὅσα
ὅσος
everything


24 1.1 ἡμέτερα ἡμέτερα
ἡμέτερος
our, our own


25 1.1 ἔργον ἔργον
ἔργον
doing


26 1.1 οὐκ οὐκ
οὐ
not


27 1.1 ἐφ᾽ ἐφ᾽
ἐπί
under our control + ἡμῖν


28 1.1 ἡμῖν ἡμῖν
ἡμεῖς
our


29 1.1 δὲ δὲ
δέ
(untranslated) μέν...δέ

30 1.1 τὸ τὸ

our


31 1.1 σῶμα σῶμα
σῶμα
body


32 1.1





33 1.1 κτῆσις κτῆσις
κτῆσις
possessions, property


34 1.1 δόξαι δόξαι
δόξα
reputation(s) (pl.)


35 1.1 ἀρχαὶ ἀρχαὶ
ἀρχή
office(s), civil authority, public offices


36 1.1 καὶ καὶ
καί
and


37 1.1 ἑνὶ ἑνὶ
εἷς
a; Dat. 'in a'


38 1.1 λόγῳ λόγῳ
λόγος
word


39 1.1 ὅσα ὅσα
ὅσος
everything (pl.)


40 1.1 οὐχ οὐχ
οὐ
not


41 1.1 ἡμέτερα ἡμέτερα
ἡμέτερος
our own


42 1.1 ἔργα ἔργα
ἔργον
doing


43 1.2 καὶ καὶ
καί
(untranslated)


44 1.2 τὰ τὰ

the things


45 1.2 μὲν μὲν
μέν
(untranslated)


46 1.2 ἐφ᾽ ἐφ᾽
ἐπί




47 1.2 ἡμῖν ἡμῖν
ἡμεῖς
to us


48 1.2 ἐστι ἐστι
εἰμί
are


49 1.2 φύσει φύσει
φύσις
by nature (dat.)


50 1.2 ἐλεύθερα ἐλεύθερα
ἐλεύθερος
free


51 1.2 ἀκώλυτα ἀκώλυτα
ἀκώλυτος
unhindered


52 1.2 ἀπαραπόδιστα ἀπαραπόδιστα
ἀπαραπόδιστος
unimpeded, untrammelled, liable to hindrance


53 1.2 τὰ τὰ

the things, things


54 1.2 δὲ δὲ
δέ




55 1.2 οὐκ οὐκ
οὐ
not


56 1.2 ἐφ᾽ ἐφ᾽
ἐπί




57 1.2 ἡμῖν ἡμῖν
ἡμεῖς




58 1.2 ἀσθενῆ ἀσθενῆ
ἀσθενής
weak, strengthless


59 1.2 δοῦλα δοῦλα
δοῦλος
slavish, servile, enslaved


60 1.2 κωλυτά κωλυτά
κωλυτός
hindered, subject to hindrance


61 1.2 ἀλλότρια ἀλλότρια
ἀλλότριος
up to others, dependent on others, alien


62 1.2 Μέμνησο Μέμνησο
μιμνήσκω
remember


63 1.2 οὖν οὖν
οὖν
therefore, then


64 1.3 ὅτι ὅτι
ὅτι
(untranslated), that


65 1.3 ἐὰν ἐὰν
ἐάν
if


66 1.3 τὰ τὰ





67 1.3 φύσει φύσει
φύσις
naturally


68 1.3 δοῦλα δοῦλα
δοῦλος
slavish, subject, enslaved


69 1.3 ἐλεύθερα ἐλεύθερα
ἐλεύθερος
free


70 1.3 οἰηθῇς οἰηθῇς
οἴομαι
to regard, to imagine, to take (things) as


71 1.3 καὶ καὶ
καί




72 1.3 τὰ τὰ





73 1.3 ἀλλότρια ἀλλότρια
ἀλλότριος
up to others, another's; τὰ ἀλλότρια 'things alien'


74 1.3 ἴδια ἴδια
ἴδιος
your own


75 1.3 ἐμποδισθήσῃ ἐμποδισθήσῃ
ἐμποδίζω
hampered (pass.); embarrassed (?), thwarted


76 1.3 πενθήσεις πενθήσεις
πενθέω
to suffer, to mourn; be miserable


77 1.3 ταραχθήσῃ ταραχθήσῃ
ταράσσω
to be upset, put to confusion, be troubled


78 1.3 μέμψῃ μέμψῃ
μέμφομαι
to blame


79 1.3 καὶ καὶ
καί
both καί...καί

80 1.3 θεοὺς θεοὺς
θεός
gods


81 1.3 καὶ καὶ
καί
and καί...καί

82 1.3 ἀνθρώπους ἀνθρώπους
ἄνθρωπος
men


83 1.3 ἐὰν ἐὰν
ἐάν
if


84 1.3 δὲ δὲ
δέ
on the other hand


85 1.3 τὸ τὸ





86 1.3 σὸν σὸν
σός
τὸ σὸν what is yours, your own


87 1.3 μόνον μόνον
μόνος
only


88 1.3 οἰηθῇς οἰηθῇς
οἴομαι
to think


89 1.3 σὸν σὸν
σός
yours


90 1.3 εἶναι εἶναι
εἰμί
σὸν εἶναι 'what in fact is yours'


91 1.3 τὸ τὸ





92 1.3 δὲ δὲ
δέ




93 1.3 ἀλλότριον ἀλλότριον
ἀλλότριος
τὸ ἀλλότριον 'what is up to others'; What is another's


94 1.3 ὥσπερ ὥσπερ
ὥσπερ
ὥσπερ ἐστίν 'as it is', is indeed


95 1.3 ἐστίν ἐστίν
εἰμί
to be; is


96 1.3 ἀλλότριον ἀλλότριον
ἀλλότριος
'up to others'


97 1.3 οὐδείς οὐδείς
οὐδείς
no one


98 1.3 σε σε
σύ
you


99 1.3 ἀναγκάσει ἀναγκάσει
ἀναγκάζω
compel, put compulsion on, to be coerced


100 1.3 οὐδέποτε οὐδέποτε
οὐδέποτε
(nobody) ever


101 1.3 οὐδείς οὐδείς
οὐδείς
no one


102 1.3 σε σε
σύ
you


103 1.3 κωλύσει κωλύσει
κωλύω
hinder, put hindrance on, to compel(?),


104 1.3 οὐ οὐ
οὐ
not


105 1.3 μέμψῃ μέμψῃ
μέμφομαι
blame


106 1.3 οὐδένα οὐδένα
οὐδείς
no one


107 1.3 οὐκ οὐκ
οὐ
not


108 1.3 ἐγκαλέσεις ἐγκαλέσεις
ἐγκαλέω
reproach, accuse


109 1.3 τινί τινί
τις
anyone


110 1.3 ἄκων ἄκων
ἀέκων
against your will, reluctantly, unwillingly


111 1.3 πράξεις πράξεις
πράσσω
to do


112 1.3 οὐδὲ οὐδὲ
οὐδέ




113 1.3 ἕν ἕν
εἷς
οὐδὲ ἕν 'no thing' emphatic for οὐδὲν


114 1.3 οὐδείς οὐδείς
οὐδείς
nobody


115 1.3 σε σε
σύ
you


116 1.3 βλάψει βλάψει
βλάπτω
to harm


117 1.3 ἐχθρὸν ἐχθρὸν
ἐχθρός
enemy


118 1.3 οὐχ οὐχ
οὐ
not


119 1.3 ἕξεις ἕξεις
ἔχω
to have


120 1.3 οὐδὲ οὐδὲ
οὐδέ
not


121 1.3 γὰρ γὰρ
γάρ
for


122 1.3 βλαβερόν βλαβερόν
βλαβερός
harm, injury; βλαβερόν πάσχω 'suffer harm';


123 1.3 τι τι
τις
anything


124 1.3 πείσῃ πείσῃ
πάσχω
suffer (+ acc. of thing)


125 1.4 τηλικούτων τηλικούτων
τηλικοῦτος
such things (pl.), matters; great goals


126 1.4 οὖν οὖν
οὖν
thus


127 1.4 ἐφιέμενος ἐφιέμενος
ἐφίημι
to aim at


128 1.4 μέμνησο μέμνησο
μιμνήσκω
remember


129 1.4 ὅτι ὅτι
ὅτι
that


130 1.4 οὐ οὐ
οὐ
not


131 1.4 δεῖ δεῖ
δεῖ
should


132 1.4 μετρίως μετρίως
μετρίως
modest, ordinary


133 1.4 κεκινημένον κεκινημένον
κινέω
effort; μετρίως κεκινημένον 'moderate passion', 'acting moderately'


134 1.4 ἅπτεσθαι ἅπτεσθαι
ἅπτω
occupy (oneself), to attain


135 1.4 αὐτῶν αὐτῶν
αὐτός
them (pl.)


136 1.4 ἀλλὰ ἀλλὰ
ἀλλά
but


137 1.4 τὰ τὰ

some things


138 1.4 μὲν μὲν
μέν

μέν...δέ

139 1.4 ἀφιέναι ἀφιέναι
ἀφίημι
to give up, renounce


140 1.4 παντελῶς παντελῶς
παντελῶς
altogether, completely


141 1.4 τὰ τὰ

others


142 1.4 δ᾽ δ᾽
δέ
and μέν...δέ

143 1.4 ὑπερτίθεσθαι ὑπερτίθεσθαι
ὑπερτίθημι
postpone, to put off, put aside


144 1.4 πρὸς πρὸς
πρός
for


145 1.4 τὸ τὸ

the


146 1.4 παρόν παρόν
πάρειμι
πρὸς τὸ παρόν 'for the moment', 'for the time being'


147 1.4 ἐὰν ἐὰν
ἐάν
if


148 1.4 δὲ δὲ
δέ
but


149 1.4 καὶ καὶ
καί
both


150 1.4 ταῦτ᾽ ταῦτ᾽
οὗτος
these things


151 1.4 ἐθέλῃς ἐθέλῃς
ἐθέλω
wish to attain


152 1.4 καὶ καὶ
καί
both


153 1.4 ἄρχειν ἄρχειν
ἄρχω
to rule, to hold office; to have a postion of authority


154 1.4 καὶ καὶ
καί
and


155 1.4 πλουτεῖν πλουτεῖν
πλουτέω
to be rich, to be wealthy


156 1.4 τυχὸν τυχὸν
τυγχάνω
it may be, may


157 1.4 μὲν μὲν
μέν
indeed


158 1.4 οὐδ᾽ οὐδ᾽
οὐδέ




159 1.4 αὐτῶν αὐτῶν
αὐτός
latter


160 1.4 τούτων τούτων
οὗτος
αὐτῶν τούτων 'the latter'


161 1.4 τεύξῃ τεύξῃ
τυγχάνω
τυχὸν οὐδ᾽ τεύξῃ 'may not attain', 'to risk failure', to fail to attain; to run a risk


162 1.4 διὰ διὰ
διά
διὰ τὸ + inf. 'because'


163 1.4 τὸ τὸ





164 1.4 καὶ καὶ
καί
even


165 1.4 τῶν τῶν





166 1.4 προτέρων προτέρων
προτερέω
former


167 1.4 ἐφίεσθαι ἐφίεσθαι
ἐφίημι
to seek, to set a desire on


168 1.4 πάντως πάντως
πάντως
πάντως γε μὴν 'inevitably', certainly, most assuredly


169 1.4 γε γε
γε




170 1.4 μὴν μὴν
μήν




171 1.4 ἐκείνων ἐκείνων
ἐκεῖνος
those things


172 1.4 ἀποτεύξη ἀποτεύξη
ἀποτυγχάνω
fail to attain; miss out on


173 1.4 δι᾽ δι᾽
διά
δι᾽ ὧν 'that '


174 1.4 ὧν ὧν
ὅς




175 1.4 μόνων μόνων
μόνος
alone


176 1.4 ἐλευθερία ἐλευθερία
ἐλευθερία
freedom


177 1.4 καὶ καὶ
καί
and


178 1.4 εὐδαιμονία εὐδαιμονία
εὐδαιμονία
happiness


179 1.4 περιγίνεται περιγίνεται
περιγίνομαι
procure, to bring